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Aim: The antibacterial activity of Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L.) and Zobo leaf (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extracts on enteropathogenic bacteria was investigated.
Study Design: The study utilized well in agar diffusion to investigate the antimicrobial properties of the extracts.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Rivers State University and the study was carried out in August, 2018 to October, 2018.
Methodology: Faecal samples were collected from a medical laboratory and inoculated on eosin methylene blue and mannitol salt agar plates for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using standard microbiological techniques. The bacterial isolates were subjected to biochemical and molecular (PCR) identification so as to ascertain the distinctiveness of the isolates. Hot water and absolute alcohol were used as the extracting solvents. Concentrations of the extracted solvents was tested against E. coli and S. aureus using the well in agar method.
Results: The result showed that both hot aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Bay leaf showed no sensitivity against the tested bacteria, whereas the extracts of hot dry aqueous and alcohol of Zobo leaf showed remarkable zones of inhibition against the tested bacteria. The zones of inhibition in the dry hot aqueous extract of zobo leaf with concentrations of 0.25 µg/mL, 0.125 µg/mL and 0.063 µg/mL were 31.3±0.1, 25.6±1.2 and 10.0±0.0, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the dry hot aqueous of zobo extract was observed at 0.063 µg/mL for E. coli, while zones of inhibition of 33.3±0.0, 30.1±0.3, 17.2±1.0 and 15.0±0.1 mm were recorded from the dry alcoholic extract of zobo leaf on E. coli given similar concentrations and the MIC was observed at the 0.031 µg/mL concentration. The result also showed that out of the four concentrations of the dry hot aqueous extract, only the 0.25 µg/mL concentration was able to show 14.2±0.0 mm inhibition on S. aureus, while the concentrations of 0.25 µg/ml and 0.125 µg/mL were the only two concentrations of the dry alcohol that showed levels of sensitivity with zone diameters of 29.3±1.0 and 25.2±0.0, respectively.
Conclusion: The plant extracts of zobo leaves which displayed remarkable activity at fairly-low concentrations could be recommended for use against similar bacteria. Thus, investigation and adoption of plant extracts in modern medicine should be encouraged as this may be the break through needed to combat the ever-increasing resistance to commonly used antibiotics.
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