Main Article Content
Aim: To investigate eco-toxicity of local and industrial refined kerosene on pollution bio-monitor Pseudomonas sp. in tri-aquatic ecosystem (Marine, brackish and freshwater).
Study Design: The study employs experimental examination and statistical analysis of the data and interpretation. It was designed to evaluate the different kerosene concentration and the duration of exposure that could cause potential toxicological effect on Pseudomonas sp. in tri-aquatic ecosystem.
Place of Study: Fresh water, brackish water, and marine water samples were collected in four litre (4L) sterile containers. Fresh water sample was collected from Asarama Andoni; brackish water from Eagle Island while marine water was collected from Bonny River in Bonny L.G.A., all in Rivers state, Southern, Nigeria. The locally refined kerosene was gotten from Okrika mainland, while the industrially refined kerosene was obtained from Chinda filling station, UST roundabout, Mile 3 Port Harcourt. The study lasted for three months.
Methodology: Standard microbiological techniques were used; toxicity procedure were applied using local and industrial refined kerosene; prepared at concentrations of 1.625%, 3.25%, 6.5%, 12.5% and 25% in fresh, brackish and marine water. These were tested with Pseudomonas sp. for 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24h separately for each toxicant. The cultures were incubated at 35°C for 24 hours. The median lethal concentration (LC50) was employed to compute the toxicities of the different toxicants on the test organism.
Results: The results specify that percentage (%) logarithm of mortality of Pseudomonas sp. increases with increased toxicants concentration and exposure time. The pollution bio-monitor Pseudomonas sp. demonstrated sensitivity to the toxicity of local and industrially refined kerosene. The sensitivity showed variations, toxic level decreased in the following order (noting that the lower the LC50, the more toxic the toxicants): Industrial refined kerosene in fresh water (18.80%) > Industrial refined kerosene in brackish water (20.81%) > Local refined kerosene in brackish water (21.48%) > Industrial refined kerosene in marine water (22.20%) > Local refined kerosene (24.26) > Local refined kerosene in marine water (24.92%). Industrial refined kerosene was seen to be more toxic in fresh water and local refined kerosene was found to be least toxic in marine water.
Conclusion: The study showed that industrial refined kerosene in fresh water (LC50 = 18.8%) has the highest toxicity strength while local refined kerosene in marine water (LC50 = 24.92%) has the least toxicity strength on Pseudomonas sp. in the tri-aquatic ecosystem. These results show that local and industrial refined kerosene can inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas sp. in an aquatic ecosystem; noting that Pseudomonas sp. is one of the most effective biodegrading bacteria in ecological biogeochemical cycles, pollutant removal/remediation and a key pollution bio-monitor.
Nrior RR, Ngerebara NN, Baraol RT, Amadi LO. Ecotoxicity of local and industrial refined kerosene on key environmental pollution monitor, Nitrobacter sp. in tri-aquatic systems in Nigeria. International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health. 2017; 4(9):199-204.
Agarry SE, Owabor CN, Yusuf RO. Enhanced bioremediation of soil artificially contaminated with kerosene: Optimization of biostimulation agents through statistical experimental design. Journal of Petroleum Environmental Biotechnology. 2012;3:120.
Gouda MK, Omar SH, Nour-Eldin HM, Chekroud ZA. Sequential hydrocarbon biodegradation in a soil from arid coastal Australia, treated with oil under laboratory controlled conditions. Organic Geochemistry. 2008;39:1336-1346.
Ollis D. Slick solutions for oil spills. Nature. 1992;358:453–454.
Nrior RR, Akani NP, Wilcox A. Ecotoxico-logical assessment of Nigeria locally refined diesel and kerosene on Aspergillus niger a key fungal pollution biomarker. Asian Journal of Biology. 2018;6(4):1-8.
Chailan F, Fleche AL, Bury E, Phantavong Y, Grimont P, Saliot A, Oudot J. Bioremediation of kerosene II: A case study in contaminated clay (laboratory and field: Scale microcosms). World Journal Microbial Biotechnology. 2004;24:1451-1460.
Greenwood PF, Wibrow S, George SJ, Tibbet M. Identification and biode-gradetion potential of tropical aerobic hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms. Research Microbiology. 2008;155:587- 595.
APHA, AWWA, WEF. American public health asssociation, american water works association, and water environment federation), standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. 21st ed., APHA, AWWA, WEF, Washington, DC; 2005.
Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR). Environmental guidelines and standards for the petroleum industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN) Revised Edition. 2002;277-288.
Williamson KJ, Johnson OG. A bacterial bioassay for assessment of wastewater toxicity. Water Research. 1981;15:383– 390.
Nrior RR, Obire O. Toxicity of domestic washing bleach (Calcium hypochloride) and detergents on Escherichia coli. Journal of International Society of Comparative Education, Science and Technology (ICEST). 2015;2(1):124-135.
Reish OL, Oshida OS. Manual of method in aquatic Environment research. Part 10 – short-term static bioassays. FAO fisheries Technical Paper No. 247 Rome. 1987;62.
Ikpeme EM, Nfongeh JF, Etim L. Comparative remediation enhancement procedures on kerosene polluted utisol from Niger Delta Region, Southern Nigeria. Research Journal of Microbiology. 2007; 2(11):856-860.
Alexander M. Biodegradation and biore-mediation. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Inc. 1994;302.
Asitok AD, Antai SP. Petroleum hydrocarbon utilization and biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas and Bacillus species. Nigeria Journal of Microbiology. 2006;20:824-883.
Alekshun MN, Levy SB. Molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial multidrug resistance. Cell. 2007;128(6):1037-1050.
Anderson DL. The biological cost of mutational antibiotic resistance: Any practical conclusion? Current Opinion in Microbiology. 2006;9(3):461-464.
Levy SB. Balancing the drug-resistant equation. Trends Microbiology. 1994;10: 341-342.
Prescott LM, Harley JP, Klien DA. Antimicrobial chemotherapy. Microbiology. 6th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. 2005;779-796.
Atlas RM, Bartha R. Biodegradation of petroleum in soil environment at low temperatures. Journal of Microbiology. 1992;17:1652-1857.