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Background: There is a continuous rise in antimicrobial resistance globally. Factors responsible for this occurrence especially in developing countries are yet to be properly elucidated. Due to the financial implications of antimicrobials individuals in developing countries such as Nigeria resort to the consumption of herbal drugs to treat infections.
Aims: To investigate the levels of biofilm expressed in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates pre-treated with herbal drugs.
Methodology: Biofilm assay was performed using 24-well polystyrene microtitre plates which mimic the surface for bacterial attachment. Control and clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae were pre-exposed to different concentrations of herbal solutions (Beta cleanser [Bet], Goko alcoholic bitters [Gab], Goko bitters [Gob], Danko solution [Dan], and Ruzu bitters [Ruz]) (100, 50, 25, 12.5, and 6.25%) in 24-well plate and incubated overnight at 37oC. Cell-to-cell surface attachment of K. pneumoniae was recorded by obtaining a photograph of the inoculum in the 24-well plate. Crystal violet method was used to quantify the levels of biofilm attached to the surface of the 24-well plate. Results were anaylsed using Graph pad prism 5.
Results: Cell-to-cell biofilm formation was seen in different drugs used but higher in Bet and Gob. Bet (25%) and Ruz (50%) showed a significant level of attached biofilm formed compared to untreated control. This results show that Bet, Gob and Ruz has the ability to induce biofilm in K. pneumoniae isolates
Conclusion: Bet, Gob and Ruz could predispose K. pneumoniae to enhance its production of biofilm.