Journal of Advances in Microbiology http://journaljamb.com/index.php/JAMB <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal &nbsp;of Advances in Microbiology&nbsp;(ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7116)&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JAMB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of Microbiology. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Advances in Microbiology 2456-7116 Evaluation of the Production Processes of Different Brands of Sachet Water Sold in the Open Market in Ado-Ekiti, Southwest, Nigeria http://journaljamb.com/index.php/JAMB/article/view/30180 <p>Life on earth is practically impossible without water, in fact, the presence of water on our planet is one of the critical factors that make life possible on earth. Apart from commercial, agricultural, industrial, domestic and sundry uses of water, humans, like other living organisms, require water for their physiological needs. However, as vital as water is to humans, if the water consumed by them is&nbsp; not potable or is unwholesome, it can lead to serious and sometimes life-threatening illnesses. This thus makes it important to periodically assess and monitor the potability and&nbsp; wholesomeness of any form of drinking water, particularly the ones presented to the public. In this study, twenty-two different brands of commercial sachet-water sold in the open market in Ado-Ekiti, southwest, Nigeria were consecutively sampled and analysed. The factories where the brands were manufactured were also visited and served structured self-administered questionnaires that were filled by their respective production managers. Data from the questionnaires were analysed and juxtaposed with the outcome of laboratory investigations with a view to identifying the factors responsible for the&nbsp; un wholesomeness of any of the brands. Out of the twenty-two sachet-water brands sampled, none (0%) had physically visible colour; none (0%) had physically perceivable odour; none (0%) had detectable taste. All (100%) were physically&nbsp; clear; 1 (5%) was bagged in a 60-cl cellophane sachet, while 21 (95%) were bagged in 50-cl cellophane sachets; all (100%) claimed to have NAFDAC (the regulatory agency responsible for the control and regulation of food, drugs and allied products in Nigeria) registration number- going by what was written on their finished products. Nearly all- 21 (95%)- all the sampled brands had a pH value of 5, while&nbsp; 1 (5%) had pH value of 6, resulting in a mean pH of 5. More than half of the brands sampled from the open market- 11 (50%)- yielded a positive culture result, 3 (14%) of which were coliforms.&nbsp; According to WHO standards there shouldn’t be a single coliform bacterium in drinking water, which makes it quite unsettling that three of the brands contained coliforms which of course could be enteric coliform- an indication of the fact that these brands had come in contact with human faeces. The public heath implication of this is discussed and appropriate recommendations made.</p> G. O. Daramola T. A. Kumoluyi H. A. Edogun A. Fadeyi A. Awosanya F. O. Adewumi E. F. Akerele O. Ogunfowokan A. O. Ojerinde A. A. Shittu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-09 2019-11-09 1 6 10.9734/jamb/2019/v19i130180 A Study on Molecular Detection of Mutations Associated with Second Line Anti-tuberculosis Drug Resistance http://journaljamb.com/index.php/JAMB/article/view/30181 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Efficient tuberculosis (TB) control is based on an early diagnosis followed by the rapid identification of drug resistance, in order to treat patients adequately, break the chain of transmission, and avoid the spread of resistant strains. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em> have emerged worldwide and seriously threaten TB control and prevention programs. At the same time, the emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) has also become an important global health problem.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To detect common gene mutation pattern associated with drug resistance against second line anti-tuberculosis drugs in TB patients by SL-LPA as a rapid and early diagnostic test.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong>total 652 sputum samples were received from 30 districts at culture district laboratory, Jamnagar from October 2018 to December 2018, and were included in the study. Second line Second line- line probe assay (SL-LPA) was used to detect mutations associated with resistance for anti-tuberculosis drugs.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of the 652 samples analyzed for mutations associated with second line anti-tuberculosisdrug resistance, 43% of the samples exhibited various forms of mutations. Out of these samples, mutations associated with gyrA gene were detected in 36.6% samples, gyrB gene mutation in 0.7% samples, rrs gene mutation in 4.4% samples and eis gene mutation in 1.2% samples.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study provide information on the mutation pattern of drug resistant strains present in the geographical area and help to provide the basis for effective strategies for control of drug resistant TB in this region. It also re-emphasizes the importance of second line LPA which can diagnose TB and drug resistance in a single day and allows earlier administration of appropriate treatment as compared to culture result which take 1-2 months.</p> Akansha Goyal Hiral Gadhavi Binita Aring Summaiya Mullan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-13 2019-11-13 1 7 10.9734/jamb/2019/v19i130181