Journal of Advances in Microbiology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal &nbsp;of Advances in Microbiology&nbsp;(ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7116)&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JAMB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of Microbiology. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Advances in Microbiology 2456-7116 Screening of in vitro Antibacterial Activity of Rumex vesicarius (L.) Leaves Extract against Twelve Pathogenic Bacterial <p>There is an alternative approaches from eradication of infections causes by pathogenic bacteria especially resistant bacteria. Methanol extract of <em>Rumex vesicarius</em> leaves were evaluated from in vitro antibacterial activity against twelve bacterial species were used which are four of them gram positive which are <em>Streptococcus constellatus, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Staphylococcus sciuri</em> and <em>Streptococcus iniae</em> and eight of them gram negative which are <em>Aeromonas diversa, Xanthomonas campestris, Xanthomonas axonopodies, Siccibacter colletis, Edwardsielloa anguillarum, Aeromonas cavernicala, Enterobacter xiangfangenis </em>and <em>Vibro rotiferianus.</em> The plant extract showed highest 12 mm zone of inhibition against <em>Staphylococcus constellatus</em> at the concentration of 20 μg/disc and no zone of inhibition was found from <em>Aeromonas diversa</em>. In minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test, methanol extract of <em>Rumex vesicarious</em> in 200μg/ml concentration showed best result against <em>Vibrio rotiferianus</em>. It can be concluded that methanol extracts of <em>Rumex vesicarious</em> leaves may be used as natural antibacterial from treatment of some diseases, especially local skin diseases.</p> Arnaba Saha Chaity Md. Ashikul Islam Tamanna Nasrin Sathi Rani Sarker Amit Kumar Dutta Biswanath Sikdar Md. Faruk Hasan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 1 6 10.9734/jamb/2019/v19i430199 Bacteriological Assessment of Toilet Seats in a Nigerian University <p>Exposure to enteric pathogens through direct contact with contaminated toilets surfaces and associated water is one of the major sources of disease transmission in public settings. The bacterial profile of toilet seats in students’ dormitories was investigated to determine the pattern of bacterial contamination of public toilet seats in a university setting. Samples were collected from the male and female hostels in the University, and Total Heterotrophic Bacterial Count (THBC) as well as Fecal Coliform Counts (FCC) were carried out using standard microbiological procedures. The male hostels had a mean THBC of 11.4 ± 4.9 x 10<sup>5 </sup>cfu/ml and 2.7 ± 0.7 x10<sup>5 </sup>cfu/ml for the water and swab samples collected from the toilet bowl (WC), respectively. The female hostels on the other hand had a mean THBC of 7.7 ± 0.6 x 10<sup>5 &nbsp;</sup>cfu/ml and 2.0 ± 2.7 x 10<sup>5 </sup>cfu/ml for the water and swab samples from the WC, respectively. The result also revealed that the water in the WC accounted for 80.7% of the bacterial isolates while the toilet seat surfaces accounted for 19.3%. However, there was a statistical difference in the bacterial counts between the male and female hostels as well as the water and swab samples from the WC (p &lt; 0.05). A total of thirty seven isolates (37) belonging to five (5) genera were identified as <em>Staphylococcus</em> spp. (32.4%), <em>Bacillus</em> spp (32.4%), <em>Klebsiella</em> <em>spp</em> (13.5%), <em>Escherichia coli </em>(13.5%)<em>, </em>as well as <em>Coccobacilli</em> (8.2%). This research has shown the pattern of bacterial contamination of toilet seats and the potential pathogenic bacteria that may pose health challenges. Reduction in the number of students per toilet as well as proper sanitary practice is recommended, to prevent toilet associated infections amongst students.</p> T. Sampson A. P. Esheyigba S. S. Baridam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 1 11 10.9734/jamb/2019/v19i430200 Spatial Distribution of Bacterial Isolates from Different Abattoirs in Port Harcourt, Nigeria <p>The constituents of wastes generated from abattoir activities create conducive environment for microbial proliferation, most of which are pathogenic. Infections caused by these microorganisms could result to zoonoses. This study was to determine the distribution of bacterial isolates and their biomass from different abattoirs in Port Harcourt. Samples like waste blood, table swab, service water, faecal matter, soil and wastewater from abattoirs in Iwofe, Rumuodomaya and Trans-Amadi were collected from October 2017 to November, 2018 and analysed using standard microbiological procedures. Results obtained revealed that the total heterotrophic bacterial count of blood samples ranged from 8.33x10<sup>1</sup> to 3.33x10<sup>2</sup> cfu/ml for Trans-Amadi and Iwofe abattoirs, table swabs ranged from 6.74x10<sup>4</sup> to 4.88x10<sup>6</sup> cfu/ml, water samples ranged from 1.56x10<sup>4</sup> to 2.07x10<sup>4</sup> cfu/ml; faecal matter had THB counts ranging from 9.97x10<sup>7</sup> to 1.06x10<sup>8</sup> cfu/g; and soil samples ranged from 1.11x10<sup>10</sup> to 1.17x10<sup>10 </sup>g,&nbsp; while wastewater counts ranged from 1.03x10<sup>8</sup> to 1.08x10<sup>8</sup> cfu/ml. The predominant Bacterial isolates were of the genera <em>Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Klebsiella, Escherichia </em>and <em>Chromobacterium, Serratia </em>sp. only was isolated from Iwofe and Rumuodomaya abattoirs within April to October while <em>Chromobacterium</em> sp. was isolated in Trans-Amadi and Rumuodomaya abattoirs within the months of May to October. Among the isolates, <em>Escherichia</em> <em>coli</em> and <em>Klebsiella</em> species occurred more compared to others in all the three locations. A higher percentage of microorganisms were recorded in the month of May compared to other months. It is presumed that abattoir wastes harbour many microorganisms of public health importance. The occurrence of these microbes, most of which are enteric pathogens, poses a public health challenge as infections by them could result in illnesses such as gastroenteritis, septicaemia and pneumonia especially in the absence of good hygiene around abattoirs. Proper sanitation in abattoirs as well as management of abattoir wastes is important in reducing the spread of these microorganisms.</p> Azuonwu Testimonies Chikanka David N. Ogbonna ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-20 2020-01-20 1 8 10.9734/jamb/2019/v19i430201 The Effect of Moringa oleifera and Ocimum gratissimum Essential Oils and Extracts on Antimicrobial Resistant Enterobacteriaceae from Environmental Sources <p>The continuous increase in resistance to antimicrobials amongst the Enterobacteriaceae constitutes a growing public health threat and thus has necessitated the need to continuously search for alternative antimicrobial chemotherapy. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects <em>Moringa oleifera </em>seed and <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> plant extracts and essential oils on antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from aquatic sources. Two hundred isolates of <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em> were recovered from two different environmental sources. The susceptibility of the isolates to ten (10) different antimicrobials was examined by the Kirby-Bauer technique. The isolates were also tested for extended β-lactamase production (ESβL) by the modified double disc synergy test and the susceptibility of the isolates to essential oils and extracts from <em>Moringa oleifera</em> seeds and <em>Ocimum gratissimum </em>leaves was analysed using the agar - well diffusion assay. In addition, the phytochemical analysis of the extracts was carried out to determine their constituents. The river water isolates recorded high resistance rates for the following antibiotics: Ampicillin (99%), cefotaxime (83%), imipenem (77%) and low rates for levofloxacine (19%), while the aquaculture isolates expressed high resistance rates to ampicillin (95%) ceftazedime (86%), ertapenem (65%), and low rates to aztreonam (8%). Thirteen (37%) isolates out of 35 tested were positive for ESβL&nbsp;&nbsp; production, four isolates from river water and nine from aquaculture. Antimicrobial analysis of the essential oils against the ESBL producers showed no inhibitory activity while the plant extracts produced zones of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentrations of between 1.32 and 2.70 mg/ml for the two plant extracts tested. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and glycosides in different quantities. This study has shown that crude extracts of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> seeds and <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> leaf could become a potential alternative in the treatment of infections due to antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.</p> C. I. Chikwendu C. E. Okere R. K. Obi N. U. Nwogwugwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-21 2020-01-21 1 9 10.9734/jamb/2019/v19i430202