Journal of Advances in Microbiology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal &nbsp;of Advances in Microbiology&nbsp;(ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7116)&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JAMB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of Microbiology. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> en-US (Journal of Advances in Microbiology) (Journal of Advances in Microbiology) Mon, 03 Feb 2020 09:41:48 +0000 OJS 60 Optimization of Cellulose Production by Curvularia pallescens Isolated from Textile Effluent <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Celluloses are important industrial enzymes and find application in several industrial processes. Effects of pH, temperature, incubation time, source of carbon and nitrogen were tested in submerged fermentation process in the production of cellulose by <em>Curvularia pallescens</em> isolated from textile effluent.</p> <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The present study was attempted in a fungus; <em>Curvularia pallescens</em> isolated from textile effluent for maximizing its production under optimal conditions in submerged fermentation by using inexpensive substrate wheat bran.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The production medium was prepared in distilled water, supplemented with 4.5% wheat bran, 0.05% KCl, 0.2% KH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>, (carbon source), yeast extract (nitrogen source), maintained with pH of&nbsp; 5.5&nbsp; and incubated at 28ºC for 120 h was found optimal for the production of cellulose.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The test fungus achieved maximum FPA activity followed by cellobiohydrolase, endoglucanase and β-glucosidase activity at&nbsp; 46.76, 42.06, 26.94 and 3.56 U/ml respectively at pH 5.5&nbsp; (Fig. 4). The temperature of 280C produced maximum cellulase activity. Highest activity recorded was of FPA (38.94 U/ml), followed by cellobiohydrolase (30.29 U/ml), endoglucanase (22.41 U/ml), and β-glucosidase (3.98 U/ml). The effect of process parameters such as the effect of temperature, pH and inoculum size was investigated. Maximum cellulase and xylanase having an enzyme activity of 694.45 and 931.25 IU, respectively, were produced at 30ºC incubation temperature.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The effect of process parameters such as effect of temperature, pH and inoculum size was also investigated. The production of primary metabolites by microorganisms is highly influenced by their growth, which is determined by the availability of the nutrients in the substrates.</p> Suman Mehla, Soumana Datta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 05 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Microbiological and Probiotic Assessment of Yeast Isolated from Wholegrain Millet Sourdoughs <p><strong>Background: </strong>The term probiotics have been described as live microorganisms associated with fermented foods that confer health benefit to the host. For a long time, researches into the world of probiotics have extensively and predominantly centred upon species of lactic acid bacteria and until recently <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>, as the only well-defined and proven probiotic yeast strain. The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterise the yeast species associated with the fermentation of wholegrain millet sourdoughs and investigate <em>in vitro</em> the possible probiotic potential of the isolates.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Wholegrain millet sourdoughs were prepared by spontaneous fermentation of the flours with tap water in the ratio 1:1 (w/v) for 48 h at 28 ± 2ºC through backslopping. A total of twenty five yeasts were identified based on their cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The selected isolates were characterized to species level using API 20 C AUX test identification kit. Probiotic properties examined included bile salt and acid tolerance under conditions simulating the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and positive antagonistic activity against selected pathogens following well established procedures.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The selected isolates investigated were characterized to belong to species of <em>Saccharomyces</em> and <em>Kluveromyces</em>. All of the isolates were discovered to exhibit sufficient survival under acidic pH of 2.0 with values ranging from 1.0log cfu ml<sup>-1 </sup>to 7.8log cfu ml<sup>-1 </sup>and showed high resistance to bile salt with values ranging from 63-99%. They also exhibited good antimicrobial activity against enteric pathogens of <em>E. coli</em>, <em>Salmonella typhimurium</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em>, <em>Streptococcus pyogenes</em>, <em>Proteus vulgaris</em> and <em>Pseudomonas sp.</em></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Millet sourdoughs can serve as an affordable nutritionally healthy substrate for delivery of probiotics to the gastro-intestinal tract, thereby proffering basic health functionality. This study allowed to isolate and to identify yeast species present in millet sourdoughs with technological potential for sourdough applications.</p> A. M. Adisa, B. O. T. Ifesan, V. N. Enujiugha, A. B. Adepeju ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 03 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Distribution and Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns of Faecal Bacteria from Underground Faecal Storage Cisterns in Ondo State, Nigeria <p>Two hundred and fifty-six (256) human faecal samples were collected from thirty-three (33) underground faecal storage cisterns across 5 major towns (Akure, Akungba, Ondo, Ore and Owo) in Ondo State, Nigeria. Salmonella-Shigella agar, Eosine Methylene Blue agar and MacConkey agar, which are selective for faecal bacteria, were used to isolate a total of 103 strains of Gram-negative bacteria. Biochemical characterization of the isolates revealed <em>Escherichia coli </em>(32.04%), <em>Enterobacter aerogenes</em> (14.56), <em>Klepsiella</em> <em>pneumoniae</em> (12.62%), <em>Salmonella</em> <em>typhi</em> (11.65%), <em>Psudomonas</em> <em>aeruginosa</em> (7.77%), <em>Shigella</em> <em>dysenteriae</em> (6.80%), <em>Proteus</em> <em>mirabilis</em> (5.83%), <em>Citrobacter</em> <em>koseri</em> (3.88%), <em>Providentia</em> <em>alcalifaciens</em> (2.91%) and <em>Klepsiella</em> <em>oxytoca</em> (1.94%).&nbsp; All the bacterial isolates were then subjected to antibiotic sensitivity test using antibiotic discs impregnated with Augmentin (30 µg), Gentamycin (10 µg), Pefloxacin (10 µg), Ofloxacin (5 µg), Streptomycin (10 μg), Sulfomethoxazole-trimethoprim (30 µg), Chloramphenicol (30 μg); Sparfloxacin (10 μg); Ciprofloxacin (5 μg) and Amoxicillin (20 μg). The resistance of the isolates to the antibiotics used varied from 27.18% to Ciprofloxacin, 33.98% to Ofloxacin, 47.57% to Sulphomethazole-Trimethroprim, 56.31% to Streptomycin, 66.99% to Chloramphenicol, 74.76% to Pefloxacin, 75.73% to Sparfloxacin, 75.73% to Gentamycin, 85.44% to Ampicillin and 95.15 to Augmentin. These results showed that underground human faecal storage cisterns contain potential multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria that may be transmitted to human via formites, animal vectors and water.</p> Anthony Kayode Onifade, Sunday Stephen Abi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 08 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Heavy Metals on β-galactosidase Activity in Marine Bacteria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Due to metal pollution and its toxicity in the coastal areas, the enzymatic activities of bacteria involved in the breakdown of organic compounds are repressed leading to decline in biodegradation rate.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The influence of heavy metals (copper, lead, zinc, manganese and iron) on β-galactosidase activity in three bacterial strains (<em>Providencia stuartii</em>, <em>Pantoea dispersa</em> and <em>Aeromonas dhakensis</em>) isolated from coastal marine sediment collected from coastal zone in Bonny Island, Nigeria was investigated.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The strains were cultivated in Z- buffered medium having lactose as enzyme inducer. Beta galactosidase assay was done via 2-nitrophenol β-D-galactopyranoside as the substrate. The absorbances of p-nitrophenol solution formed were measured at 420 nm in a spectrophotometer. The β-galactosidase activities were calculated comparative to controls.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Presence of the metals significantly affected β-galactosidase activities. Metal concentration of 0.001 mg/L triggered a decrease in enzyme activity. The sensitivity patterns of <em>Pantoea dispersa</em> and <em>Aeromonas dhakensis</em> were Cu&gt;Pb&gt;Zn&gt;Mn&gt;Fe while that of <em>Providencia stuartii</em> was Pb&gt;Cu&gt;Zn&gt;Mn&gt;Fe. The effect of metal stress to enzyme synthesis is reliant on the organism and the metal. This might be described with logistic dose-response model using elevated coefficient of inhibition (R &gt; 0.81).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results revealed that concentration of metal as low as 0.001 mg/L when deposited in the environment has detrimental effect on microbial activities and consequently on biogeochemical cycles<em>.</em> The isolated bacterial strains could serve as ideal organisms for heavy metal toxicity evaluation.</p> Ogechi Joy Osigwe, Caroline Nchedo Ariole, Abiye Anthony Ibiene ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 11 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Alleviation of Salt Stress on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria strains Bacillus halotolerans MSR-H4 and Lelliottia amnigena MSR-M49 <p>The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) application could reduce the use of synthetic fertilizers and increase the sustainability of crop production. Halophilic bacteria that have PGPR characteristics can be used in different environmental stresses. Two different strains isolated, purified, characterized as a PGPRs and phylogenetic identification using 16sRNA which was revealed to be closest matched at 99% with <em>Bacillus halotolerans</em> and <em>Lelliottia amnigena. </em>The isolates possessed plant growth promoting properties as exopolysaccharides (EPS) and indole acetic acid (IAA) production,<em> Bacillus halotolerans</em> had the ability to fix elemental nitrogen and the two strains have the ability to P-solubilization. Furthermore, the strains were evaluated in alleviation of different levels of salt stress on wheat plant at two experiments (Pots and a Field). Strains under study conditions significantly increased the plant height, straw dry weight (DW g plant<sup>-1</sup>), spike number, 1000 grain DW recorded 31.550 g with<em> Lelliottia amnigena</em> MSR-M49 compared to un-inoculated and other strain in field,&nbsp; grain yield recorded 2.77 (ton fed<sup>-1</sup>) with<em> Lelliottia amnigena</em>&nbsp; as well as N% and protein content in grains recorded 1.213% and 6.916 respectively with&nbsp; inoculation with <em>Lelliottia amnigena</em>,&nbsp; also, spikes length, inoculated wheat show reduction in both proline accumulation in shoots and roots especially with <em>Lelliottia amnigena </em>recorded 2.79 (mg g<sup>-1</sup>DW), inoculation significantly increased K<sup>+</sup> in root-shoot, K<sup>+</sup>/Na<sup>+</sup> in root-shoot and reduced Na<sup>+</sup> in root-shoot compared with control. This confirmed that this consortium could provide growers with a sustainable approach to reduce salt effect on wheat production.</p> Ibrahim El-Akhdar, Tamer Elsakhawy, Hanaa A. Abo-Koura ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 13 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Response of Different Cultivars of Wheat Plants (Triticum aestivum L.) to Inoculation by Azotobacter sp. under Salinity Stress Conditions <p>Salinity is one of the key restraints to agricultural productivity worldwide and is expected to increase further. Therefore, cope with this problem we should be develop strategies to enhance salinity tolerance in different crops. One of these modern strategies is to use plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can help plants to withstand under harsh environmental conditions. The present study was evaluated six isolates of <em>Azotobacter </em>sp. (Az1-Az6) which tested <em>in vitro</em> for growth, PGPR traits such as indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) production and nitrogen fixation, germination indicators for different wheat cultivars <em>i.e.</em> Misr 1, Gemmiza 12 and Sakha 95 under different levels of NaCl. Also, the efficacy of inoculation with two superior isolates in different wheat cultivars in a Gnotobiotic Sand System and greenhouse experiment for improving growth dynamics, physiological attributes, nutrient uptake and antioxidant enzymes under different levels salinity of sandy soil (0, 4, 8 and 12 dS m<sup>-1</sup>).</p> <p>Out of 6 isolates, two isolates (Az2 and Az6) could show salinity tolerance and exhibited PGPR traits as well as improvement germination tests. Both the bacteria could promote growth in 3 cultivars of wheat tested in terms of increase in fresh weight, dry weight, root and shoot length as well as root colonization compared to uninoculated control under Gnotobiotic Sand System experiment.&nbsp;</p> <p>Under greenhouse experiment conditions, inoculation treatment with Az6 showed a significant increase of vegetative growth, physiological and biochemical parameters of different wheat cultivars under different salinity stress treatments. Also, Az6 treatment recorded the highest N% from wheat plants attained 2.64, 2.51 and 2.43% at 4 dS m<sup>-1 </sup>for Misr1, Sakha 95 and Gemmiza 12 cultivars, respectively but the highest K<sup>+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup>/Na<sup>+</sup>% and the lowest Na<sup>+</sup>% were obtained from plants that grown in soil salinized with 8 and 12 dS m<sup>-1</sup>. The same trend was observed for antioxidant enzymes. Thus, inoculation with <em>Azotobacter </em>isolates Az2 and Az6 could be efficiently used to partially or completely eliminate the effects of salt stress on growth of different wheat cultivars.</p> Sahar El-Nahrawy, Mohamed Yassin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 15 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Presepsin as a New Marker for Early Detection Neonatal Sepsis in Al-Quwayiyah General Hospital Riyadh, KSA <p><strong>Background:</strong> Early detection and start of antibiotic therapy neonatal sepsis (N.S) dramatically improves outcomes, so it is important to perform fast, reliable and specific early laboratory biomarkers.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong><strong>: </strong>This study aimed to detect the prevelance, the risk factors, <a href="">hematology</a> profile, microbial profile of neonatal sepsis patients and also investigate the value of PCT and CRP, in comparison to presepsin in establishing the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross sectional study was performed from March to September 2019 in Al Quwayiyah General hospital involving 120 neonates who were classified into 3 groups. The patients groups were: Proved N.S, suspected N.S and control healthy neonates, classified depending on Tollner score. Haematology profile and blood culture for each neonate were done. CRP, PCT and presepsin values were analyzed, compared, and their effectiveness as diagnostic markers was determined. Sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of the markers were calculated. <strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> The prevelance of neonatal sepsis was 20.8%. 75 neonates were males and 45 neonates were females. 74 neonates were preterm, while 46 were full term. Gestational age in weeks was 31.1±5.9w for neonates with proved sepsis, 32.4±6.7w for neonates with suspected sepsis and 36.4±4.4w for control group. The mean birth weight was 1740±105.3 g for neonates with proved sepsis, 32.4±6.7 g for neonates with suspected sepsis, 2.650±205.2 g for control group. 36 babies suffered from respiratory distress syndrome, 10 had jaundice, 8 had cough, 28 had fever and 8 complained of other symptoms. Blood cultures were positive for all patients of proved sepsis. The identified bacteria included Gram positive bacteria 22(55%) which were Coagulase negative staph. 13(32.5%) followed by <em>Staphylococcus</em> <em>aureus</em> 4(10%) while Gram negative bacteria 15(37.5%) which were <em>E</em>. <em>coli</em> 5(12.5%) followed by <em>Klebsiella</em> <em>peumoniae</em> and also fungal infection (Candida species) detected in 3(7.5%) cases. There was significant difference between the mean and standared deviation of CRP, PCT and presepsin levels in proved and suspected N.S. groups when compared with healthy controls (P&lt; 0.05). CRP sensitivity and specificity (72%, 61% respectively) which were less useful in diagnosis of neonatal sepsis compared to presepsin which has the highest sensitivity and specificity (95%, 81% respectively) followed by procalcitonin with sensitivity and specificity (90%, 69% respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> The prevalence of neonatal sepsis among all admitted neonates in Al-Quwayiyah general hospital was 20.8%. Our results also detected higher sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values for presepsin more than and PCT CRP in the diagnosis of NS.</p> Enas Sh. Khater, Taha M. Al-Hosiny ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 18 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000