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Aim: This research was undertaken to compare the antifungal effects of Eupatorium odoratum leaf extract and Vernonia amygdalina extracts with common disinfectants on air-borne fungi in poultry houses.
Place and Duration of Study: Air in four poultry farms within Ihiala Local Government Area, Anambra State was sampled between March 2017 and October 2017.
Methodology: Poultry air of four different sites at Uli town in Ihiala local government area of Anambra state in Nigeria, were sampled using Sedimentation and Volumetric methods. Fresh leaves of Eupatorium odoratum and Vernonia amygdalina were collected from Uli town, Anambra State, air-dried, processed and extracted using Ethanol and water. Four-hundred (400) mg of the crude extracts were evaluated for Antifungal activity using agar diffusion method. The MIC and MFC were determined using Broth dilution methods.
Results: Five isolates namely, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus tubingensis, Candida akabanensis, Candida rugosa, and Fusarium solani were identified. Antimicrobial evaluation of the crude extracts showed that ethanol extract of Eupatorium odoratum had activity against all the test isolates except Candida akabenensis and Fusarium solani. The aqueous extracts of Eupatorium odoratum and Vernonia amygladina had activity against all the isolate except Candida akabenensis and Fusarium solani and Candida rugosa. Common disinfectants used in this study namely Izal and Polidine showed inhibitory activity against all the isolates. Ethanol extract of Eupatorium odoratum recorded a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 100 mg/ml against A. flaus, F. solani, and A. tubingensis, while the minimum inhibitory concentration for Candida rugosa is 200 mg/ml. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of Ethanol extract of Eupatorium odoratum against A. flaus, F. solani, Candida rugosa and A. tubingensis were 200 mg/ml, 100 mg/ml, 400 mg/ml and 200 mg/ml respectively. Aqueous extract of Eupatorium odoratum recorded a minimum inhibitory concentration of 200 mg/ml against A. flaus and A. tubingensis, while the minimum inhibitory concentration against Candida rugosa is 400 mg/ml. The minimum fungicidal concentration of Aqueous extract of Eupatorium odoratum, were 200 mg/ml, 400 mg/ml and 200 mg/ml for A. flaus, Candida rugosa and A. tubingensis respectively.
Ethanol extracts of Vernonia amygdalina leaf had lower minimum inhibitory concentrations of 100 mg/ml against A. flavus, A. tubingensis respectively, and 200 mg/ml against F. solani, while the minimum fungicidal concentrations recorded for A. flavus, A. tubingensis and F. solani were 200 mg/ml, 400 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml respectively. Aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaf had a minimum inhibitory concentration of 200 mg/ml and 400 mg/ml against A. flavus and A. tubingensis with a minimum fungicidal concentration of 400 mg/ml for both isolates only. The Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of both Izal and Polidine was between 12.5% V/V and 50% V/V against all the isolates except Polidine that had minimum fungicidal concentration of 100% V/V against Candida rugosa.
Conclusion: The extracts of Eupatorium odoratum and Vernonia amygdalina has antifungal activity against all the isolates except Candida akabenensis. If considered and used as a disinfectant during misting, it may decrease the cost of disinfecting poultry farms using available disinfectants in the market. These suggestion, however, need further work to validate reliability.