Bacteriological Assessment of Toilet Seats in a Nigerian University

Main Article Content

T. Sampson
A. P. Esheyigba
S. S. Baridam


Exposure to enteric pathogens through direct contact with contaminated toilets surfaces and associated water is one of the major sources of disease transmission in public settings. The bacterial profile of toilet seats in students’ dormitories was investigated to determine the pattern of bacterial contamination of public toilet seats in a university setting. Samples were collected from the male and female hostels in the University, and Total Heterotrophic Bacterial Count (THBC) as well as Fecal Coliform Counts (FCC) were carried out using standard microbiological procedures. The male hostels had a mean THBC of 11.4 ± 4.9 x 105 cfu/ml and 2.7 ± 0.7 x105 cfu/ml for the water and swab samples collected from the toilet bowl (WC), respectively. The female hostels on the other hand had a mean THBC of 7.7 ± 0.6 x 105  cfu/ml and 2.0 ± 2.7 x 105 cfu/ml for the water and swab samples from the WC, respectively. The result also revealed that the water in the WC accounted for 80.7% of the bacterial isolates while the toilet seat surfaces accounted for 19.3%. However, there was a statistical difference in the bacterial counts between the male and female hostels as well as the water and swab samples from the WC (p < 0.05). A total of thirty seven isolates (37) belonging to five (5) genera were identified as Staphylococcus spp. (32.4%), Bacillus spp (32.4%), Klebsiella spp (13.5%), Escherichia coli (13.5%), as well as Coccobacilli (8.2%). This research has shown the pattern of bacterial contamination of toilet seats and the potential pathogenic bacteria that may pose health challenges. Reduction in the number of students per toilet as well as proper sanitary practice is recommended, to prevent toilet associated infections amongst students.

Bacterial profile, toilet seats, sanitary practice, fecal coliform, university setting.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sampson, T., Esheyigba, A. P., & Baridam, S. S. (2020). Bacteriological Assessment of Toilet Seats in a Nigerian University. Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 19(4), 1-11.
Original Research Article


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