Bacteriological Assessment of Toilet Seats in a Nigerian University
Journal of Advances in Microbiology,
Exposure to enteric pathogens through direct contact with contaminated toilets surfaces and associated water is one of the major sources of disease transmission in public settings. The bacterial profile of toilet seats in students’ dormitories was investigated to determine the pattern of bacterial contamination of public toilet seats in a university setting. Samples were collected from the male and female hostels in the University, and Total Heterotrophic Bacterial Count (THBC) as well as Fecal Coliform Counts (FCC) were carried out using standard microbiological procedures. The male hostels had a mean THBC of 11.4 ± 4.9 x 105 cfu/ml and 2.7 ± 0.7 x105 cfu/ml for the water and swab samples collected from the toilet bowl (WC), respectively. The female hostels on the other hand had a mean THBC of 7.7 ± 0.6 x 105 cfu/ml and 2.0 ± 2.7 x 105 cfu/ml for the water and swab samples from the WC, respectively. The result also revealed that the water in the WC accounted for 80.7% of the bacterial isolates while the toilet seat surfaces accounted for 19.3%. However, there was a statistical difference in the bacterial counts between the male and female hostels as well as the water and swab samples from the WC (p < 0.05). A total of thirty seven isolates (37) belonging to five (5) genera were identified as Staphylococcus spp. (32.4%), Bacillus spp (32.4%), Klebsiella spp (13.5%), Escherichia coli (13.5%), as well as Coccobacilli (8.2%). This research has shown the pattern of bacterial contamination of toilet seats and the potential pathogenic bacteria that may pose health challenges. Reduction in the number of students per toilet as well as proper sanitary practice is recommended, to prevent toilet associated infections amongst students.
- Bacterial profile
- toilet seats
- sanitary practice
- fecal coliform
- university setting.
How to Cite
Greed, C. The role of public toilets: Pathogen transmitter or health facilitator. Journal of Building Engineering. 2014; 27(2):127-139.
Gerhardts A, Hummer T, Balluff R, Mucha H, Hoefer D. A model of the transmission of micro-organisms in a public setting and its correlation to pathogenic infection rises. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2012;122: 614-621.
Maori L, Agbor V, Ahmed W. The prevalence of bacterial organisms on toilet door handles in secondary schools in Bokkos L. G. A., Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2013;8(4):85-91.
Cheesbrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries part 2 (2nd Ed.). Capetown: Cambridge University Press. 2006;76:181,64.
Alves J, Ferreira I, Martins A, Pintado M. Antimicrobial activity of wild mushroom extract against clinical isolates resistance to different antibiotics. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2012;11:466-475.
Whittington M. Epidemiology of infections with trichomonas vaginalis in the Light of improved diagnostic methods. British Journal of Venereal Diseases. 1957;33:80-91.
Burgess J. Trichomonas vaginalis infection from splashing in water closets. British Journal of Venereal Disease. 1963;39: 248-50.
Amala E, Ade J. Bacteria associated with toilets and offices lock. International Journal of Epidemiology and Infection. 2015;3(1):12-15.
Wiencek M, Fletcher M. Effects of substratum wettability and molecular topography on the initial adhesion of bacteria to chemically deﬁned substrata. Biofouling. 1997;11:293–311.
Ista I, Fan Y, Baca O, Lopez P. Attachment of bacteria to model solid surfaces: Oligo (ethylene glycol) surfaces inhibit bacterial attachment. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 1996;142:59–63.
Sampson T, Ogugbue CJ, Okpokwasili GC. Determination of the Bacterial Community Structure in a Crude Oil-inundated Tropical Soil Using Next Generation Sequencing Technique. Journal of Advances in Microbiology. 2018; 11(1):1-18.
Akani NP, Hakam IO, Sampson T. Prevalence and antibiogram of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from West African Mud Creeper (Tympanotonus fuscatus). South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology. 2019;5(2):1- 8.
Holt JG, Kreig NR, Sneath PHA, Stanley JT, Willams ST. Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology-Ninth Edition. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore; 1994.
National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. 8th Informational Supplement. M100 S12. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards; 2002.
Ngonda F. Assessment of bacterial contamination of toilets and bathroom doors handle/knobs at Daeyang Luke hospital. Pharmaceutical and Biological evolution. 2017;4:193-197.
Mendes M, Lynch J. A bacteriological survey of washrooms and toilets. Journal of Hygiene.1976;76(2):183-90.
Cortney M, Angela F, Roman S. Cleaning and disinfecting bathrooms. Department of Food, Nutrition, and Packaging Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634; 2019.
Available: W.W.W. FightBac.org
(Accessed 26th December 2019)
Ejim I, Mary A, Egberongbe H. Characterization of micro-organisms isolated from bathroom walls in a Nigerian University Journal of Applied Life Sciences International. 2016;9(4):1-11.
Stevens M, Edmond M. Endocarditis due to vancomycin-resistant enterococci: Case report and review of the literature. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2005;41(8):1134-1142.
Brenner D, McWhorter C, Knutson K, Steigerwalt G. Escherichia vulneris: A new species of Enterobacteriaceae associated with human wounds. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 1982;15:1133-1140.
Edberg C, Rice W, Karlin J, Allen J. Escherichia coli: The best biological drinking water indicator for public health protection. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2000;88:106-116.
Seladi-Schulman J. Your Guide to Coccobacilli infections. Available:www.healthline.com.
(Accessed July 11th 2019 at 12.00 GMT)
WHO-World Health Organization. Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Update and SDG Baselines. World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF); Geneva, Switzerland; 2017.
Lim S, Vos T, Flaxman D, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani H, Amann M, Anderson R, Andrews G, Aryee M. A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Journal of Lancet, London. 2012;380:2224–2260.
Prüss-Üstün A, Bos R, Gore F, Bartram J. Safer water, better health: Costs, benefits and sustainability of interventions to protect and promote health. World Health Organization; Geneva, Switzerland; 2008.
Flores E, Bates T, Knights D, Lauber L, Stombaugh J, Knight R, Fierer N. Microbial biogeography of public restroom surfaces. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(11):1-7.
Owuna G, Abimku R, Nkene I, Joseph G. Ijalana O. Isolation and antibiotics susceptibility of Staphylococcus Aureus from fresh poultry meats sold in keffi metropolis Nigeria. International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences. 2015; 11(3):1-5.
Boada A, Pons-Vigues M, Real J, Grezne E, Bolibar B, Llor C. Previous exposure and antibiotic resistance of commensal Staphyloccocus aureus in Spanish primary care. Europian Journal of General Practice. 2018;24(1):125–130.
Abstract View: 128 times
PDF Download: 211 times