Carbapenemase Producers among Gram Negative Bacteria from Environmental and Clinical Samples in Makurdi, Nigeria

Main Article Content

F. B. Omoregbe
O. E. Fagade


Carbapenem-resistant Gram negative bacteria in healthcare setting is an important medical problem and a major threat. These Gram negative bacteria are rapidly spreading worldwide. Clinical bacteria isolates were obtained from clinical samples Urine, High Vaginal Swab (HVS), Wound Swab (WS), Stools, Ear Swab (ES), Endocervical Swab (ECS), Sputum and Blood, from two tertiary hospitals. Environmental samples were also collected from both hospitals using standard sampling techniques. Multiple drug resistant (MDR) patterns were determined using disc diffusion technique. Biochemical tests were used in the identification. Antibiotics sensitivity of clinical and environmental isolates was verified using disc diffusion method. Detection of carbapenemase producing bacteria was done using double disc synergy test and modified Hodge test. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics. Clinical bacteria (403) obtained were distributed 271 Federal Medical Centre(FMC) and 132 Benue State University Teaching Hospital (BSUTH) out of which 299 were confirmed Gram negative, 218 (FMC) and 81 (BSUTH), respectively. Thirty-nine Gram negative bacteria were also isolated from the environmental samples. A higher percentage of carbapenemase producers (12.8%) were found in environmental isolates compared to 2.7% in clinical isolates. Any levels of resistance to carbapenems calls for the need to reduce the indiscriminate use of this group of antibiotics and monitoring both in the hospitals and environment.

Gram negative bacteria, antibiotic resistance, carbapenemase.

Article Details

How to Cite
Omoregbe, F. B., & Fagade, O. E. (2020). Carbapenemase Producers among Gram Negative Bacteria from Environmental and Clinical Samples in Makurdi, Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 20(3), 11-20.
Original Research Article


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