Transfusion Transmitted Infections among Blood Donors at a Tertiary Health Facility in Southwest, Nigeria

Main Article Content

G. O. Daramola
H. A. Edogun
O. Alex-Abioudun
Q. M. Umukoro
A. O. Ojerinde
O. D. Ajayi
A. Fatoki
A. H. Egbebi
O. O. Ogunfolakan

Abstract

It was a major breakthrough for human medicine when Landsteiner discovered the ABO blood group system. But with the discovery of ABO and Rhesus systems, this major hindrance to safe blood transfusion- and by extension surgery- was effectively put behind humanity. Centuries after this, humanity is faced another kind of challenge to safe blood transfusion- transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs), particularly in developing nations of the world. Though lots of infections are transmissible through transfusion, the focus of this study was HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of these TTIs (HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis) among intending blood donors at a tertiary health facility in Ekiti State, southwest, Nigeria. The data of 150 intending blood donors at the said tertiary health facility were retrospectively retrieved and analysed. One hundred and twenty (80%) of the subjects were males, while 30 (20%) were females. The age of the subjects ranged between 18 and 55 years. Thirty-four (22.7%) of the subjects had TTIs, while 116 (77.3%) were negative to all the TTIs of interest for this study (HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis). Out of the 34 subjects who had TTIs, 2 (1.3%) tested positive for HIV, 18 (12%) for HBV; 10 (6.7%) for HCV and 4 (2.7%) for syphilis. Twenty-nine (85.3%) of the subjects who had TTIs were males, while 5 (14.7%) were females. An overall TTI sero-prevalence of 2.7% is rather on the high side and should serve as a wake-up call to all concerned authorities in the State to design enlightenment programme that will reduce the sero-prevalence of TTIs.

Keywords:
Transfusion, TTIs, Blood Donors HIV, HBV, HCV

Article Details

How to Cite
Daramola, G. O., Edogun, H. A., Alex-Abioudun, O., Umukoro, Q. M., Ojerinde, A. O., Ajayi, O. D., Fatoki, A., Egbebi, A. H., & Ogunfolakan, O. O. (2020). Transfusion Transmitted Infections among Blood Donors at a Tertiary Health Facility in Southwest, Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 20(4), 66-69. https://doi.org/10.9734/jamb/2020/v20i430238
Section
Original Research Article

References

Bihl F, Catelli D, Marincola F, Dodd R. Y, and Brander C. Transfusion Transmitted Infections. J Transl Med. 2007;6(5):25.
Available:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1904179/

Moor AC, Dubblman TM, VanSteveninck J, Brand A. Transfusion transmitted diseases: Risks, prevention and perspectives. Eur J Hamatol. 1999;62(1):1-18.

WHO. Screening donated blood for transfusion-transmitted infections; 2019.

WHO. Blood transfusion safety; 2009.

Dodd RT, Osuji A, Agabakoba NR, Ifeanyichukwu MO. Transfusion transmissible viral infections at two teaching hospitals in Nigeria. Ame J Inf Dis and Micro. 2007;6(1):9-15
Available:http://www.sciepub.com/reference/233059

Pruett CR, Vermeulen M, Zacharias P. The use of rapid diagnostic tests for transfusion infections screening in Africa: a literature review. Transfus Med Review. 2015; 29(1):35-44.

Odaibo GN, Taiwo A, Aken’Ova YA. Detection of HIV antigen and cDNA among antibody-negative blood samples in Nigeria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102(3):284-287.

Osaro E, Mohammed N, Zama I: Pre-donation screening of blood for transfusion transmissible infections: The gains and the pains- experience at a resource limited blood bank. Ghana Med J. 2014;48(3):158.

Nagalo BM, Bisseye C, Sanou M, Kiene M, Neble YR, Kibe A, Daharou H, Quattara S Seroprevalence and incidence of transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases among blood donors from regional blood , transfusion centres in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Trop Med Int Health. 2012;2:247-253.

Adegoke AO, Akanni O, Dirisu J. Risk of transfusion-transmitted syphilis in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. N Ame J Med Sci. 2011;3(2):78-81.

Babatunde MO, Faneye AO, Udo UA, Olusola BA, Ezeani I, Ogiogwo JI: Sero-prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections in first time donors in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Afr Health Sci. 2015;15(1).

Fasola FA, Fadimu PA, Akpan VO. A seven-year review of the seroprevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections in a hospital-based blood bank in Ibadan. J Clin Med Res. 2017;6(1)1-8:335-41.

Ajugwo AO, Erhabor TA, Eledo BO, Eze RI, Digban KA. Prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. J Trans Dis Imm. 2017;1(2):11.

Salawu L, Bolarinwa RA, Adegunloye AB, et al. HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and VDRL in blood donors: Prevalence and trends in the last three and a half years in a tertiary health care facility in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Int. J. Med; 2010.

Buseri FI, Muhibi MA, Jeremiah ZA. Seroepidemiology of transfusion-transmissible infectious diseases among blood donors in Osogbo, south-west Nigeria. Blood Transfus. 2009;7:293-9.

Chikwem J, Mohammed I, Okara G, et al. Prevalence of transmissible blood infections among blood donors at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria. East Afr Med J. 1997;74(4):213–16.