Main Article Content
National efforts to control canine rabies have encountered some challenges, hence the disease is becoming endemic in Eswatini. The purpose of this study was to establish the extent to which resources and other relevant constraints may have an impact on implementing the national rabies programms in the country. In this study retrospective data going as far back as 1999 to 2018 was used to highlight the rabies situation in the country. The available insight into the existing and previous control measures may become useful guidelines for designing and implementing future control strategies.
The major challenges identified were issues of vaccine and vaccination, government fiscal challenges, High birth rate of stray dogs were responsible for the rabies virus circulation in the domestic environment, provision of diagnostic facilities for testing of vaccine efficacy, vaccine quality, healthy dog carriers, check for vaccination antibody titres.
Observations from this study were that the continuing efforts of the competent authority to spearhead the rabies control programms were acceptable and commendable considering the challenges encountered. A few recommendations are outlined for possible consideration as a contribution towards the rabies disease elimination.
DVLS. Annual Report, Ministry of Agriculture Veterinary Epidemiology Unit, Manzini, Swaziland. 2013;47–49.
Leite–Browning ML, Browning R, Vaughn CF, Andries K, Simon M, Williams W, Walker M. Major zoonotic diseases of sheep and meat goats. SSERT-30303-11; 2012.
Odita CI, Tekki IS, Moses DG, Barde JI, Egwu KO, Idachaba SE, Ahmed JS, Ifende VI, Makanju O, Ugbe DA, Zhakom PN, Nzekwe E, Watsamanda N, Okpala G, Dashe Y, Nwosuh C, Okewole PA, Shamaki D. Dog anti-rabies vaccination coverage in Jos South LGA of Plateau State, Nigeria. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 2019;17(3):30-34.
Fitzpatrick MC, Hampson K, Cleaveland S, Meyers LA, Townsend JP, Galvani AP. Potential for rabies control through dog vaccination in wildlife-abundant communities of Tanzania. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2012;6(8):e1796.
Mantovani A. Zoonoses control and veterinary public health. Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics). 1992;11(1):205-218.
Ruppreht CE, Dietzschold B. Special issue: Rabies symptoms, diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2017;2(59):1–4.
Department of Public Health England. Rabies risks by country; 2019.
CDC. Guidance regarding Agency Interpretation of” Rabies–Free” as it Relates to the Importation of Dogs into the United States, Department of Health and Human Services, Federal Register Notices. 2019;64(21):724-730.
Australian Department of Health. Rabies and Australian bat lyssavirus; 2020.
Mani RS, Madhusudana SN. Laboratory diagnosis of human rabies: Recent advances. Scientific World Journal; 2013. PMC3848253.
Dürr S, Naïssengar S, Mindekem R, Diguimbye C, Niezgoda M, Kuzmin I, Rupprecht CE, Zinsstag J. Rabies diagnosis for developing countries. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2008;2(3): e206.
(Published 2008 Mar 26)
OIE Terrestrial Manual. Diagnostic techniques for rabies. Chapter 3.1.17 Rabies (infection with rabies virus) and other lyssavirusses. 2018;578–597.
Wacharapluesade S, Hemachudha T. Nucleic-acid sequence based amplification in the rapid diagnosis of rabies. The Lancet. 2001;358(9285):892–893.
Nishizono A, Khawplod P, Ahmed K, Goto K, Shiota S, Mifune K, Yasui T, Katsuyoshi Takayama K, Kobayashi Y, Mannen K, Veera Tepsumethanon V, Mitmoonpitak C, Inoue S, Morimoto K. A simple and rapid immunochromatographic test kit for rabies diagnosis. Microbiology and Immunology. 2008;52(4):243-249.
Coetzer A, Coetse J, Makalo MJ, Molomo M, Markotter W, Nel LH. Epidemiology of rabies in Lesotho: The importance of routine surveillance and virus characterization. Tropical Medicine Infectious Diseases. 2017;2(3):30.
Adedeji AO, Eyarefe OD, Okonko IO, Ojezele MO, Amusan TA, Abubakar MJ. Why is there still rabies in Nigeria? A review of the current and future trends in the epidemiology, prevention, treatment, control and possible elimination of rabies. British Journal of Dairy Sciences. 2010;1(1):10-25.
Canine Rabies Blueprint. 2017;Ver. 4:1-9.
Garg SR. Rabies in man and animals. India: Springer India. 2013;89-104.
Karunanayake D, Matsumoto T, Wimalaratne O, Nanayakkara S, Perera D, Nishizono A, Ahmed K. Twelve years of rabies surveillance in Sri Lanka, 1999-2010. PLos Neglected Tropical Diseases; 2014. Available:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25299511
Matter HC, Wandeler AI, Neuenschwander BE, Harischandra LP, Meslin FX. Study of the dog population and the rabies control activities in the Mirigama area of Sri Lanka. Acta Tropica. 2000;75(1):95-108.
Kongkaew W, Coleman P, Pfeiffer DU, Antarasena C, Thiptara A. Vaccination coverage and epidemiological parameters of the owned-dog population in Thungsong District, Thailand. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2004;65(1-2):105-15.
Botswana Government. Rabies country profile. WHO Publication. 2013;1-3.
Obonyo M, Akoko JM, Orinde AB, Osoro E, Boru WG, Njeru I, Fèvre EM. Suspected rabies in humans and animals, Laikipia County, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases; 2013.
Suárez-Rodríguez B, Santos S, Saravia G, Sánchez-Gómez A, Sierra MJ, Amela C, Gutierrez AG, Jané M, Canales AJ, Ripalda J, Lopaz MA, Sáez JL, García-Villacieros E, Echevarría JE, Vázquez S, Rodríguez-Valín E, Simón F. A case of rabies in a dog imported to Spain from Morocco in June 2013. Temporary Loss of Rabies Free Certificate. The Rabies Bulletin Europe; 2013.
Hiromi Takahashi-Omoe, Katsuhiko Omoe, Nobuhiko Okabe. Regulatory systems for prevention and control of rabies, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(9): 1368-1374. Available:https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1409.07084
Voslárˇvá E, Passantino A. Stray dog and cat laws and enforcement in Czech Republic and in Italy. Ann Ist Super Sanità. 2012;48(1):97-104.
Ogunkoya AB, Osinubi MVO, Garba A, Audu SW, Atuman YJ, Ehimiyein AM. Rabies and rabies problems in Nigeria. Conference: Rabies In The Americas Conference. 2012;23.
WHO. Expert consultation on rabies. First Report. Geneva, World Health Organization, WHO Technical Report Series. 2013;982.
National Veterinary Services. Annual Report. Veterinary Epidemiology Unit, Manzini, Eswatini. 2018;92–93.
Travel Health Pro. Worldwide rabies risk reminder. A reminder for travellers of the global risk of rabies. Provided by NaTHNaC; 2019.
Australian Department of Health. Rabies Virus and Other Lyssavirus (Including Australian Bat Lyssavirus) Exposures and Infections. Series of CDNA National Guidelines for Public Health Units. Communicable Disease Network Australia; 2018.