Main Article Content
Background: Opportunistic fungal infection in HIV positive individualshas a high risk of morbidity and mortality as it could be a pointer to systemic infection. Moringa oleifera is one of the 14 species of the family Moringaceae with traditional effectiveness in anti–helminthic, analgesic, anti-ulcerative, anti-microbial, etc.
Aim: This study was designed to determine the susceptibility pattern of different parts of Moringa oleifera against some pathogenic fungi using dried Morringa oleifera seed, bark, pod, and leaf extracts/fractions as agents.
Materials and Methods: A total of 132 subjects (62 males and 70 females) attending outpatient clinics (OPD) at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, and Holy Rossary Hospital Emekuku Owerri, Nigeria were recruited for this study. The HIV status of the test subjects was confirmed using immuno-chromatographic technique and their sputum screened for Tuberculosis (TB) using Ziehl Nelsen staining technique. The sputum samples were also cultured on Sabouaurd dextrose agar with and without chloramphenicol incubated at 25oC with examination of growth every 3 days for two weeks. Identification of isolates was done using Gram staining methods, chromogenic media and slide culture.700g, 220g, 500g, and 250g each of the different parts of the pulverized Moringa oleifera (seeds, barks, pods, and leaves) were weighed and exctracted using Soxhlet extractor and methanol as solvent.
Results: The prevalence of fungi isolates from test subjects shows that Candida albicans has the highest frequency of 25(26.6%), with the least prevalent being Aspergillus flavus and Phialemonium curvatum at 2(2.1%) respectively. There was also a positive significant correlation between TB and fungi infection in HIV-sero positive subjects (P<0.05).The invitro antifungal activity of these Moringa oleifera extracts/fractions against the test isolates showed no antifungal activity except for ethyl acetate fraction which demonstrated the most prominent activity against A. fumigatus with zones of inhibition of 3-10mm diameter with the least activity against C. krusei with zones of inhibition of 3-6mm diameter. However, the antifungal activities of fluconazole which served as a control in the antifungal susceptibility against the test isolates were more effective than the extract/fractions against the test isolates with a minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 50-200mg/ml against 25-100mg/ml for ethylacetate fraction.
Conclusion: The comparable antifungi effect of ethylacetate fraction of M. oleifera leaf with that of fluconazole, suggests that ethylacetate fraction of M. oleifera leaf could aid the treatment of pathogenic fungi due to its potential applications in Pharmaceutical industry, thereby ameliorating the morbidity and mortality rate of HIV positive co-infected TB subjects.
Moir S, Chun TW, Fauci AS. Pathogenic mechanisms of HIV disease. Annual Review on Pathology. 2011;6:223-248.
Cunningham A, Donaghy H, Harman A, Kim M, Turville S. Manipulation of dendritic cell function by viruses. Current Opinion in Microbiology. 2010;13(4):524-529.
Himanshu Garg, Jonathon Moh, Anjali Joshi. HIV-1 Induced Bystander Apoptosis. Viruses. 2012;94(11):3020-43.
United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. AIDS epidemic update WHO, Geneva Switzerland. 2009;6-8.
World Health Organization. Global HIV/AIDS response: Epidemic update and health sector progress towards universal access.WHO, Geneva Switzerland. 2011;9-11.
Jawetz, Melnick, Adelberg. Opportunistic infection in HIV. Medical Microbiology 24th edition. Published by McGraw Hill Medical. 2007;44:612-616.
Topley, Wilson’s. Microbiology and microbial infection: In Medical Mycology 10edition. Published by Hodder Arnold. 2005;12:293-294.
Bharathi M, Usha-Rani A. Pathogenic fungal isolates in sputum of HIV positive patients. Journal of AIDS/HIV Research. 2011;3(6):107-113.
Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV infected adolescents and adult. National institutes of Health, the center for disease control and prevention and the HIV medicine association of infectious disease society of America. MMWR. 2009;58(4):98.
World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis control.
Getahun H, Gunneberg C, Granich R, Nunn P. HIV infection associated with tuberculosis. Clinical Infectious Disease. 2010;50(3):201-207.
Collins CL, Henman DJ, King RN, Dunshell FR. Common vetch is an alternative protein in Pig diets. Proceeding of the Nutrition Society of Australia. Asia Pacific Journal of Chemical Nutrition. 2002;26(11):249-250.
Julia C. A study of nutritional and medicinal values of Morringa oleifera leaves from Susaharan Africa Ghana, Rwanda, Senegal and Zambia. 2008;113-114.
Daziel J.M. Useful plants of West Tropical African Crown agents of oversea government and administration, London. 1956:23-24.
Andy IE, Eja EM, Mboto CI. Evaluation of the antimicrobial potency of Lasianthera africana. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology. 2008;4(1):25-29.
Duraipandayan V, Ayyanar, Ignacimuthy S. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial of Morringa oleifera. Asian Journal of Microbiology. 2006;5:334-337.
Kritakar and Basu. Indian Medicinal Plants. Published by Lalit Mohan Basu M.B. Allahabal. 1984:677-680.
Pal SK, Mukherjee PK, Soha BP. Studies on the antiulcer activity of Morringa oleifera leaf extract on gastric ulcer models in Rats. Phytotherapy Research. 1995;9:457-463.
Mehta A, Aggarawal B. Antiasthmatic activity of Morringa oleifera. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2003;40:28-31.
Ruckmani K. Effects of Morringa oleifera lam on paracetamol induced hepatoxicity. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 1998;60(1):33-35.
Daniyan S, Abalaka M, Eru O. The use of Morringa seed extract in water purification. International Research Journal in Ayurveda and Pharmacy. 2011;2(4):1265-1271.
Thilza I, Zakari A, Muhammed M. Invitro antimicrobial activity of water extract of Morringa oleifera leaf stalk on bacteria normally implicated on eye disease. Academic Arena. 2010;2:80-83.
Sharma P, Kumari P, Srivastava M, Srivastava S. Removal of cadmium from aqueous system by shelled M. oleifera lam seed powder. Bioresource Technology. 2006;299-303.
Monica P, Sharma B, Sharkar C, Singh C. Kinetics of drumstick leaves during convective drying. Africa Journal of Plant Science. 2010;4(10):391-400.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Association of official Analytical chemist. Official analytical methods. 15ed vol 1 AOAC Washingston DC. 1990;16-17.
Anwar F, Latir S, Ashraf M, Gilan AH. Moringa oleifera: A food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phytotherapy Research. 2007;21:17-25.
Josephine NK, Gabriel SB, Lonzy O, Joseph O, Jaseper W. Phytochemicals and uses of M. oleifera leaves in Uganda rural communities. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2010;4(9):753-757.
Iswar Chandra G, Shamim QMD, Safwan AK, Jitendra P, Rohit Choudhary, Anoop singh. Short Communication Evaluation of the Anthelmintic Activity of Moringa oleifera seeds. International Journal of Pharma Professional’s Research. 2010;1(188):34-37.
Okorie C, Ajibesin K, Sanyaolu A, Islam A, Lamech S, Mupepi K, Mupepi T, Oseni A, Oyeleke O, Abioye A. A review of the therapeutic benefits of Moringa oleifera in controlling high blood pressure (hypertension). Current Traditional Medicine. 2019;1;5(3):232-45.
Aggarawal BB, Sundaram C, Malani N, Ichikawa H. Curcumin: the Indian solid gold. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 2007;295:1-5.
Chees brough M. Summary of the clinical and laboratory features of microrganisms. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countires, Part II, 2nd edition. Cambridge University press, New York, USA. 2006;178-298.
Mackie Mc Cantey. Practical Medical Microbiology, 14th Edition. Churchill Livingstone, London. 2008;695-720.
Cheesbrough M. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries Part II, second edition. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA. 211-214.
Vivian C. Onuoha, Ifeoma B. Enweani, Ogbonnia Ekuma-Okereke. Patterns of Fungi Isolates from Sputum Samples of HIV Subjects Co-Infected with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Eastern Nigeria. Universal Journal of Microbiology Research. 2019;7(2):7-19.
Perez C, Pauli M, Bazerque P. Antibiotic assay by agar-well diffusion method. Acta Biologiae et Medicinae Experimentalis. 1990;15:113-115.
Russell AD, Furr JR. The antibacterial activity of a new chloroxylenol preparation containing ethylenediaminotetracetic acid. Journal of Applied Bacteriology.1977;43:253-254.
Karim SS, Churchy GJ, Karim QA, Lawn SD. Infection and Tuberculosis in South Africa. Lancet. 2009;374(9693):921-933.
Esebelahie Newton O, Enweani Ifeoma B, Omoregie Richard. Candida colonization in asymptomatic HIV patients attending a tertiary hospital in Benin City, Nigeria. Libyan Journal of Medicine. 2013;8(20322):1-5.
Bharathi B, Sivasankar S, Swamidoss D. Incidence of bacterial and fungal co-infection in some HIV infected Indian population. Indian Journal of Biotechnology. 2010;3(2):199-200.
World Health Organization. Laboratory Manual for diagnosis of fungal opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients. Chapter 2 Common opportunistic infections. 2009; 8-16.
Ranajana KH, Priyokumar K, Singh TJ. Disseminated Pencillum marneffei infection in HIV infected patients in Manipur State, India. Journal of Infectious Disease. 2002;45(4):268-271.
Esebelahie, N.O., Enweani, I.B., Omoregie, R. Candiduria among HIV-infected patients attending a tertiaryhospital in Benin City. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. 2014; 15(2):84-90.
Olufunmilayo EA, Adelodun LK, Akintomiwa OF. Morringa oleifera Lam (Morringaceae) grown in Nigeria: In vitro antisickling activity on deoxygenated erythrocyte cells. Journal of Pharmacy Bio Allied Science. 2012;4(2):118-122.
Oluduo AO. Evaluation of antimicrobial properties and nutritional potentials of Morringa oleifera Lam Leaf in South- Western Nigeria. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology. 2012;8(2):59-67.
Bukar A, Uba A, Oyeyi T. Antimicrobial profile of Morringa oleifera lam extracts against some food borne microrganisms. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2010;3(1):43-48.
Abalaka ME, Daniyan SY, Oyeleke SB, Adeyemo SO. The Antibacterial Evaluation of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts on Selected Bacterial Pathogens. Journal of Microbiology Research. 2012;2(2):1-4.
Farjana N, Zahangir AS, Rahman HM, Haque-Ekramul M. Invitro antimicrobial activity of the compound isolated from chorofoam extract of Morringa oleifera lam. Pankistain Journal of Biological Sciences. 2003;6(22):1888-1890.