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Background: Otamiri river server as a source of water for domestic activities, urban farming, recreation, aquatic foods in Owerri and environs. It also receives untreated domestic, industrial and agricultural waste water and run offs from the municipality. Seepages from solid wastes dumps at the river banks and sand mining activity going on in the river could also constitute environmental hazards
Aims: This study aims at evaluating the interactive effects of the ternary mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and some divalent metals on preponderant bacterium (Serratia marcescens (SerEW01)) from the river.
Study Design: Fixed ratio ray design was used for the study, with inhibition of dehydrogenase activity as end point.
Place and Duration of Study: Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria, June – December, 2019.
Methodology: The bacterium was earlier isolated as the preponderant bacterium isolate from the river water. Fixed ratio ternary mixtures (Equieffect concentration (EEC50) and arbitrary concentration (ABCR) ratios), SDS + Pb + Zn, SDS + Cd +Zn, SDS + Pb +Ni, SDS + Ni + Cd, SDS + Co + Pb and SDS + Co + Cd were designed to evaluate the combined toxicities of these toxicants. Toxicities predicted by concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) models were compared with the experimentally observed toxicities.
Results: The EC50S observed ranged from 0.046 ± 0.003 mM (Zn) to 2.329 ± 0.092 mM (SDS). The EC50S of the toxicants were statistically different from each other (P<0.05). The order of increasing toxicities were SDS >Pb >Ni > Co > Cd(II) >Zn. Concentration-dependent toxicities with progressive inhibition of the dehydrogenase activity as the concentration increased were observed.. In all ternary mixtures, both the experimentally derived, CA and IA-predicted EC50S were statistically different from each other. Both models predicted lower toxicities compared to the experimental data. The Toxic Index and Model Deviation Ratio indicated synergistic interaction of SDS and metal ions against S. marcescens (SerEW01)
Conclusion: This study could constitute base line information towards assessing the possible environmental hazards associated with co-contamination of the environment by SDS and divalent heavy metals, more so when both pollutants are common aquatic pollutants.
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