Citric Acid Production from Waste Substrate by Using Some Fungi

Main Article Content

Shrishti Sharma
Suruchi Parkhey
Ashish Saraf
Sachin Das


Citric acid is one of the most commonly used and easily available multifunctional organic acids. This is widely used in different industrial applications. Citric acid is 2hydroxyl 1,2,3 propanetricarboxylic acid. It is present in many fruits and vegetables. Citric acid is usually found in lemon. The global demand for Citric acid is about 6.08x105per year its uses are increasing day by day. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus organisms are used for citric acid production. In this present study citric acid production from the different waste substrates such as Banana peels, Coconut husk, and Rice straw were carried out using Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus isolated from soil sample. Characterization and identification were done with the help of microscopic examination based on lactophenol cotton blue staining. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus are appeared as branched hypae with conidial spore. The production of citric acid was performed by solid state fermentation and estimated on the different fermentation days, different pH and different concentration of substrate. We observed that high level of citric acid production was on 9th day of fermentation as compared to others days of fermentation.

Solid state fermentation, citric acid, banana peels, rice straw and coconut husk, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus

Article Details

How to Cite
Sharma, S., Parkhey, S., Saraf, A., & Das, S. (2021). Citric Acid Production from Waste Substrate by Using Some Fungi. Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 20(12), 34-56.
Original Research Article


Soccol CR., Vandenberghe LPS, Rodrigues C, Paney A. New perspectives for citric acid production and application. Food Technol. Biotechnol. 2006;44(2):141-149.

Garden J, Roberts K, Taylor A, Robinson D. Evaluation of the provision of single use of citric acid sachets to injection drug users. Scottish Center for Infection and Environmental Health; 2003.

Penniston KL, Nakada SY, Holmes RR, Assmos DG. Quantitative assessment of citric acid in lemon juice, lime juice and commercial available fruit juice products. J. Endourol. 2008;22(3).

PMID 18090732,

Demirel G, Yaykasli KO, Yasar A. The production of citric acid by using immobilized Aspergillus nigerA – 9 and investigation of its various effects. Food Chem. 2005;89:393–396.

Alben E, Erkmen O. Production of citric acid from a new substrate, undersized semolina, by Aspergillus niger. Food Technology and Biotechnology. 2004;42(1):19-22.

Almousa AA, Abd El-Ghany MN, Ashour EH. Citric Acid Fermentation by Aspergillus niger. Journal of Innovations in Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences (JIPBS) ISSN: 2349-2759; 2019.

Ajala AS, Adeoye AO, Fasonyin OT. A study on effect of fermentation conditions on citric acid production from cassava peels. Scientific African. 2020;8.

Hossain M, Brooks JD, Maddox IS. Galactose inhibition of citric acid production from glucose by Aspergillus niger. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 1985;22(2):98–102.

Bervic M, Legisa M. Citric acid production Biotechnol Ann Revi. 2007;303-343.

Lakshminarayana K, Chaudhary K, Ethiraj S, Tauro P. A solid state fermentation method for citric acid production by using of sugarcane bagasse. J. Biotrchnol. Bioeng. 1975;27:291-293.

Kapoor KK, Chaudry K, Tauro P. Citric acid. In: Prescott and Dunn’s Industrial Microbiology.Reed,G.(ed.). UK: MacMillan Publishers Ltd. 1983;709-747.

Mattey M, Allen A. Metabolic accumulation in Aspergillus species. Biochemical Society Transaction. 1990;18:1020-265.

Kubicek CP. The role of sugar uptake and channelling for citric acid accumulation by Aspergillusniger. Food Technology and Biotechnology. 1998;36:173-175.

Crolla A, Kennedy KJ. Optimization of citric acid production from Candida lipolyticaY-1095 using n-paraffin. Journal of Biotechnology. 2001;89:27-40.

Archer DB, Mackenzie A, Jeenes DJ. Genetic engineering; Yeasts and filamentous fungi. In: Basic Biotechnology. 2ndedn. Ratledge, C. And Kristiansen, B. (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridgepp. 2001;95-126.

Kamzolova SV, Shishkanova NV, Morgunov IG, Finogenova TV. Oxygen requirements for growth and citric acid production of Yarrowialipolytica. Federation of European Microbiological Societies FEMS Yeast Research. 2003;3:217-222.

Yalcin SK, Bozdemir MT, Ozbas ZY. Citric acid production by yeast: fermentation conditions, process optimization and strain improvement. In Current Research, Technology and Education Topic in Applied Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology A. Mendez- Vilas, Ed. 2010;1374-1382.

Usami S, Fukutomi N. Citric acid production by solid state fermentation method using sugar cane bagasse and concentrated liquor of pineapple waste. Hakkokogaku. 1977;55: 44-50.

Usami S. Production of citric acid by submerged culture. Mem School Sci. Eng. waseda Univ. 1978;42:17-26.

Steinbock FA, Held I, Choojun S, Harmsen HM, Kubicek-pranz EM, Kubicek CP. Regulatory aspect of carbohydrate metabolism in relation to citric acid accumulation by Aspergilusniger. Acta Biotechnol. 1991;11:571-581.

Femi-Ola TO, Atere VA. Citric acid production from brewers spent grain by “Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyyces cerevisiae,” International Journal of Research in Biosciences. 2013;2(1):30-36.

Kareem SO, Akpan, Alebiwn OO. Production of citric acid by Aspergillus Niger using pineapple waste. 2010;6(2): 161-165.

Pucher GW, Saherman CC, Vickery HB. A method to determine small amount of citric acid in biological material. J. Bol. Chem. 1936;113-235.

Saffran M, Denstedt OF. A rapid method for determination of citric acid. J. Biol. Chem. 1948;175-849.

Marrier JR, Boulet M. Direct determination of citric acid in milk with an improved pyrimidine-acetic anhydride method. J. Dairy. Sci. 1958;4:1683-1692.

Dubois Gillesk A, Hamilton JK, Robers PA, Smith F. Calorimetric method for the determination of sugar and related substances. Anal. Chemist. 1956;25:350-354.

Iralatati V, Kummari S. Production of citric acid from different fruit prrls using Aspergillus niger. IJSER. 2014l;3(5):129-130.

Fawole OB, Odunfa SA. Some factore affecting production of pectin enzyme by Aspergilusniger. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation. 2003;53(4):223-227.

Alsudani AA, Al-Shibli MK. Citric acid production from some local isolates of fungus Aspergillus niger by rice husks filtrate medium. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research. 2014;6(8): 5625-5633.

Sanchez- Marroquin A, Carreno R, Ledezma M. Effect of trace elements on citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus Niger. Applied Microbiology. 1990;20(6):888-892.

Khosravi-Darani K, Zoghi A, Alavi SA, Fatemi S. Apllication of Placket- Burman design for citric acid production from pretreated and untreated wheat straw. Iran J. Chem. Eng. 2008;2:1-15.

Kristiansen B, Sinclair CG. Production of citric acid in batch culture. J. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 1978;20:1711-1722.

Orthafer R, Kubicek CP, Rohr M. Lipid levels and manganese deficiency in citric acid producing strains of Aspergillus Niger. FEMS Microbiology Letter. 1979;5(6):403–406.