Effect of Selected Fungicides in the Control of Aflatoxin-producing Fungi in Pre-harvest Maize (Zea mays L) in Anambra State
Journal of Advances in Microbiology,
Contamination of maize by toxigenic fungi is the process that occur yet in the field. Aflatoxin contamination in several foodstuffs has been a recurrent problem. This study is aimed to evaluate the effect of selected fungicides in the control of aflatoxin-producing fungi affecting growth in pre-harvest maize (Zea mays L). Maize seeds treated with organic and synthetic fungicides were sown immediately after land preparation comprising of 13 plots. Five plants each were randomly selected from 13 plots for collecting data for 12 weeks at 2 week interval. Effect of organic and synthetic fungicide in the control of aflatoxin production on the growth parameters of maize showed that maize treated with Azadirachta indica recorded significant growth in the leaf area for all treatments for weeks 8, 10 and 12 while at week 6, maize treated with Cymbopogon citratus showed significant growth in the leaf area at 0.05% for TLg25%, TLg75% and TLg100%. Maize treated with synthetic fungicide (mancozeeb) showed significant growth in the leaf area for weeks 8, 10, 12 in all treatments. Maize treated with Azadirachta indica recorded a significant difference in the plant height for week 4, 10 and 12 in all treatments. For maize treated with Cympobogon citratus, weeks 2 and 8 recorded no significant difference in the plant height but showed a significant growth in the plant height at weeks 4 and 12 (for all treatments) while weeks 6 and 10 recorded significant growth in the plant height for some of the treatments. Maize treated with synthetic fungicide showed significant growth in the plant height for weeks 4, 10 and 12. Fungal isolates identified in this study were: Aspergillus spp. Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp., with Aspergillus spp. having the highest frequency of occurrence of 4 in treatments TAi100%, TLg75%. The result showed that both organic and synthetic fungicide were effective in the control of aflatoxin-producing fungi on the maize yield but was more effective with the organic fungicide. The use of Azadirachta indica and Cymbopogon citratus is recommended as a means of biofungicides to control aflatoxin-producing fungi in maize.
- Azadirachta indica
- Cymbopogon citrates
How to Cite
Yaouba A, Tatsadjieu NL, Jazet DPM, Mbofung CM. Inhibition of Fungal Development in Maize Grains under Storage Condition by Essential Oils. International Journal of Biosciences. 2012;2(6): 41-48.
IITA. Increasing Maize Production in West Africa: Influencing Farmer’s Adoption of Improved Maize Production Practices in Ikara Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Agrosearch. 2008;16(2): 15-24.
Sadiq MS, Yakassai MT, Ahmad MM, Lakpene TY, Abubakar M. Profitability and Production Efficiency of Small-Scale Maize Production in Niger State, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP). 2013;3(4): 19–23.
Ogunniyi LT. Household Consumption of Cassava Products in Oyo State. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research. 2011;11 (6):38–44.
Ramírez-Camejo LA, Zuluaga-Montero A, Lázaro-Escudero M, Hernández Kendall V, Bayman P. Phylogeography of the Cosmopolitan Fungus Aspergillus flavus: Is Everything Everywhere? Fungal Biology. 2012;116(3):452- 463.
Zorzete P, Castro RS, Pozzi CR, Israel ALM, Fonseca H, Yanaguibashi G, Corrêa B. Relative Populations and Toxin Production by Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides in Artificially Inoculated Corn at Various Stages of Development under Field Conditions. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2008;88: 48-55.
Shephard GS. Aflatoxin and Food Safety: Recent African Perspectives. Toxin Reviews. 2003; 22: 267-286.
Pfliegler WP, Pusztahelyi T, Pócsi I. Mycotoxins: Prevention and Decontamination by Yeasts. J. Basic Microbiol. 2015;55: 805–818.
Liu J, Sui Y, Wisniewski M, Droby S, Liu Y. Review: Utilization of Antagonistic Yeasts to Manage Post-harvest Fungal Diseases of Fruit. Int. J. Food Microbiol.. 2013;167: 153–160.
Ehrlich KC. Non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus to Prevent Aflatoxin Contamination in Crops: Advantages and Limitations. Front. Microbiol. 2014;5: 50.
Weaver MA, Abbas HK. Field Displacement of Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Strains through Repeated Biological Control Applications. Front. Microbiol. 2019;10:1788.
Gallo A, Giuberti G, Frisvad JC, Bertuzzi T, Nielsen KF. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract their Negative Effects. Toxins. 2015;7: 3057– 3111.
Ogunade IM, Martinez-Tuppia C, Queiroz OCM, Jiang Y, Drouin P, Wu F. Silage Review: Mycotoxins in Silage: Occurrence, Effects, Prevention, and Mitigation. J. Dairy Sci. 2018;101: 4034– 4059.
Gabriolotto C, Monchiero M, Nègre M, Spadaro D, Gullino ML. Effectiveness of Control Strategies against Botrytis Cinerea in Vineyard and Evaluation of the Residual Fungicide Concentrations. J. Environ. Sci. Health Part B. 2009;44:389– 396.
Nxumalo KA, Aremu AO, Fawole OA. Potentials of Medicinal Plant Extracts as an Alternative to Synthetic Chemicals in Postharvest Protection and Preservation of Horticultural Crops: A Review. Sustainability. 2021;13: 1-33.
Seneviratne K, Kotuwegedara R. Antioxidant Activities of the Phenolic Extracts of Seed Oils and Seed Hulls of Five Plant Species. Food Sci. Technol. Int. 2009;15:419–425.
Wedge DE, Smith BJ. Discovery and Evaluation of Natural Product-Based Fungicides for Disease Control of Small Fruits. Biological Control of Plant Pathogens and Diseases. 2006;1: 1-14.
Khalid S, Shad RA. Potential advantage of recent allelochemical discoveries and agro-ecosystems. Prog. Farm. 2002;11: 30-35.
Gupta PK, Rithu BS, Shruthi A, Lokur AV, Raksha M. Phytochemical Screening and Qualitative Analysis of Cymbopogon citratus. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2019;8(4):3338-3343.
Ujah II, Nsude CA, Ani ON, Alozieuwa UB, Okpako IO, Okwor AE. Phytochemicals of Neem Plant (Azadirachta indica) explains its use in Traditional Medicine and Pest Control. GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2021;14 (2):165-171.
Salako EA, Anjorin ST, Garba CD, Omolohunnu EB. A Review of Neem Biopesticide Utilization and Challenges in Central Northern Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008; 7(25):4758- 4764.
Wondimeneh T, Fanuel L, Gifole G. Seed germination, emergence and seedling vigor of maize as influenced by pre-sowing fungicide seed treatment. Journal of Agricultural Resarch and Development .2013;3(3):035-041.
Cheesebrough M. Medical Laboratory Manual for Tropical Countries: Microbiology. Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford. 2000;260.
Jawetz MA, Brooks GF, Butel JS, Morse SA. Medical Microbiology. 23rd edition. McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. Singapore. 2004; 818.
Duncan DB. Multiple Range and Multiple F-Test. Biometrics. 1955;11:1-5.
Owino PO, Waudo SW. Medicinal Plants of Kenya: Effects of Meloidogyne incognita and the Growth of Okra. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology. 1992;2: 64 – 66.
Anjorin ST, Salako EA. The Status of Pesticidal Plants and Materials Identification in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Plant Protection 2009;23: 25-32.
WX, Marchal JLM, van der Poel AFB. Review article: Strategies to Prevent and Reduce Mycotoxins for Compound Feed Manufacturing. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 2018;237: 129–153.
Abstract View: 60 times
PDF Download: 25 times