Prevalence of HBV Co-infections with HCV and HIV among Blood Donors in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Famoni O. P

Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Ekiti State University, Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Oyinloye J. M. A

Department of Biological Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Okiki P. A

Department of Biological Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Daramola G. O *

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Ekiti State University, Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria and Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Ojerinde A. O

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Ajayi O. D

University Health Centre, Bamidele Olumilua University of Education, Science and Technology, Ikere-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Blood is a life-saving resource. Despite the significance of blood transfusion in saving a millions life in emergencies and medical treatment, the safety of blood transfusion faced challenges of transmitting life threatening transfusion transmissible infectious agents such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The study was carried out to determine the sero-prevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infections among blood donors in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. A total of five hundred (500) prospective blood donors age ranged from 18 to 60 years attending Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital between May to November, 2019 were recruited for the study. Prospective study was based on questionnaires administered to generate socio-demographics and a 5ml venous blood samples were obtained from each blood donors and the plasma was used for determination of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV using immunoassay rapid test kit (RTK) Diaspot, Belgium and HIV-1 and HIV-2 Determine Alere Medical ,Japan and further tested with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Biorad Monolisa, France). The prevalence of  HBV, HCV and HIV were 4.8%, 1.2% and 1.8%  respectively, while co-infections with  HBV/ HIV and HBV/HCV were 0.2% and 0.2% respectively and there was no case of triple infections among the blood donors. The incidence rate was high in HBV followed by HIV and HCV. The use of RTK and ELISA for screening of blood donor for HBsAg, anti HCV and HIV in terms of their sensitively and specificity showed that ELISA is more sensitive than RTK while RTK is more specific than ELISA. From the retrospective study age and  gender distribution was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). A significance difference was observed between married blood donors and HIV infection (P < 0.05) and also blood donors with history of blood transfusion showed statistical significant to HBV and HCV (P < 0.05). The prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV infections among blood donors were found to be statistically associated with smoking, alcohol consumption, surgical operation, multiple sex partners and tattooing (P < 0.05). This study shows that the prevalence of  HBV infection in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State ,Nigeria was higher than HCV and HIV, hence there is need to increase public awareness of the socio-cultural practices that contribute to the transmission of infection.

Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, HIV, hepatitis C virus, co-infection, Ekiti, blood donor


How to Cite

Famoni O. P, Oyinloye J. M. A, Okiki P. A, Daramola G. O, Ojerinde A. O, & Ajayi O. D. (2024). Prevalence of HBV Co-infections with HCV and HIV among Blood Donors in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 24(5), 6–17. https://doi.org/10.9734/jamb/2024/v24i5822

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