Journal of Advances in Microbiology 2020-07-12T12:17:10+00:00 Journal of Advances in Microbiology Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal &nbsp;of Advances in Microbiology&nbsp;(ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7116)&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JAMB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of Microbiology. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> Antimicrobial, Phytochemical Analysis and Molecular Docking (In-silico Approach) of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray and Jatropha gossypiifolia L on Selected Clinical and Multi-Drug Resistant Isolates 2020-07-12T12:17:10+00:00 A. F. Okiti O. T. Osuntokun <p>The aim of this study is to determine the zones of inhibition, phytochemical screening and molecular docking (<em>In-silico</em> Approach) of <em>Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray</em> and <em>Jatropha gossypiifolia L</em> against selected clinical and multi drug resistant isolates. Crude extraction of air dried leaves were carried out by soaking the plant in ethanol and ethyl acetate, standard agar diffusion method was used for sensitivity testing, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values were obtained by agar dilution method. The antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of <em>T. diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray</em> and <em>J. gossypiifolia L</em> was assayed against <em>Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysentriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes</em>, <em>Candida albican </em>and against multi drug resistant bacteria which are <em>Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter agglomerans, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia stuartii, Salmonella subsp 3b</em>. Levofloxacin and fluconazole were the standard antibiotics used. Sensitivity test revealed the highest zone of inhibition observed for <em>J. gossypiifolia L </em>and <em>T. diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray </em>against <em>Candida albican </em>with mean and standard deviation of 29±1.414 and 19.5±0.707 at 100 mg/ml respectively, while the least zone of inhibition was observed from the extracts of <em>J. gossypiifolia L </em>against <em>Escherichia coli with </em>11.75±0.354 at 100 mg/ml. Both plant extracts showed antimicrobial activity against multi drug resistant isolates having zones of inhibition ranging from 0 to 15±1.414. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of the extracts ranges between 6.25 and 100 mg/ml as well as the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration. The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinone, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phlobotannins, reducing sugars saponins, steroids and tannins. Molecular docking of the phytochemicals of <em>T. diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray</em> only was carried out using levofloxacin as template, which revealed the presence of compounds more effective in inhibiting DNA gyrase enzyme. Thus, the use of both plants as traditional medicine is justifiable and should be encouraged in the formulation and production of new antibiotics.</p> 2020-06-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Early Onset and Late Onset of Neonatal Sepsis in a Tertiary Hospital, South-South, Nigeria 2020-07-12T12:17:09+00:00 A. A. Adedokun E. O. Onosakponome C. U. Nyenke <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The study was carried out to determine organisms present during early onset of neonatal sepsis (EONNS), late onset of neonatal sepsis (LONNS) and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This study is a retrospective evaluation of 453 neonatal blood cultures. Two (2) ml of blood from these neonates was cultured in thioglycollate broth and tryptone soya broth. This was carried out in the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria between January-December 2007.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 453, 272(60.0%) neonates showed negative blood cultures, while 181(40.0%) neonates had positive bacterial cultures and 2 neonates (0.4%) were positive for <em>Candida albicans. </em>Overall, <em>Klebsiella</em> spp. was the most common pathogen, accounting for (37.8%) of the total isolates. Others were as follows; <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (28.4%), <em>Escherichia coli</em> (11.8%), unclassified coliforms 8.3%, <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp. 4.9%, <em>Enterococcus</em> spp. (2.9%), coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS) (2.5%) and <em>Proteus</em> spp. (3.4%). Early onset neonatal sepsis (EONNS) and late onset neonatal sepsis (LONNS) had <em>Klebsiella </em>spp and <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>as their common causes of neonatal sepsis respectively. <em>Klebsiella </em>spp. was susceptible to spafloxacin (87.0%) followed by ofloxacin (82.0%), amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (79.0%) and ceftazidime (65.0%) among the Gram-negative organisms. In the category of Gram-positive organisms, <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>is highly sensitive to ofloxacin (81.0%) followed by spafloxacin (79.0%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (71.0%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> A viable antibiotic susceptibility surveillance programme coupled with good infection control practices and rational antibiotics use will reduce infection rate, ensure better therapeutic success and prolong the efficacy of available antimicrobials.</p> 2020-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Studies on the Proximate Contents and Potentials of Musa sapientum and Persea americana Fruits Peel as Media for the Growth of Medically Important Fungi 2020-07-12T12:17:08+00:00 David C. Ekwe Osmond C. Ekwebelem Emmanuel A. Eze <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The present study was designed to formulate growth media for medically important fungi using banana and avocado fruits peel.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The peels were obtained from fresh banana and avocado fruits and dried into crisps at 100<sup>o</sup>C using hot air oven, pulverised into powder using Hammer mill machine and sieved into fine powder using 1 mm sieve size. Pure isolates of <em>Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus </em>and <em>Cladosporium</em> sp. were obtained from the Diagnostic Laboratory of the Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka and used for the study. Two different media, Banana Peel Agar (BPA) and Avocado Peel Agar (APA) were formulated. 2 g of each fruit peel powder was introduced into separate conical flasks, 1g of agar powder was added as solidifying agent and varied glucose concentrations (20%, 10%, 5% and 0%) was used as nutrient (carbon source) supplement. The prepared media was sterilized by autoclaving at 121°C for 15 minutes. The test organisms were inoculated aseptically onto the formulated media and incubated for 3 days at 37<sup>o</sup>C. Fungal growth was visually observed. For comparative analysis, Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) was used as control.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The formulated media supported the growth of all the test organisms, although at varying degrees. BPA showed more suitability than APA, with the growth of the test organisms on BPA favourably comparable to that on SDA. Proximate analysis of the fruit peels indicated that the moisture, ash, fat, crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate contents of avocado peel were 7.35%, 14.65%, 0.10%, 9.75%, 6.57% and 61.58% respectively and 5.80%, 6.00%, 0.45%, 5.35%, 10.95% and 71.45% respectively for banana peel.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Banana and avocado fruits peel can be utilized as alternative materials in the formulation of culture media for the <em>in vitro</em> cultivation of fungi for medical and research purposes.</p> 2020-07-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Molecular Characterization and Detection of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Pseudomonas Species Isolated from Tympanotonus fuscatus 2020-07-12T12:17:06+00:00 T. Sampson N. P. Akani I. O. Hakam <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This was carried out to characterize <em>Pseudomonas </em>species isolated from the West African Mud Creeper (<em>Tympanotonus fuscatus</em>) molecularly and as well detect the possible presence of inducible AmpC gene that mediates resistance to cephalosporins and most penicillins.</p> <p><strong>Sample: </strong><em>Tympanotonus fuscatus </em>(West African Mud Creeper), a gastropod mollusc found in brackish waters of West Africa was used for the study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>This study was carried out between February and August 2019 at the Department of Microbiology, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Thirty two (32)<em> Pseudomonas </em>species were isolated and identified culturally from <em>T. fuscatus. Pseudomonas </em>species isolates were subjected to a group of ten (10) antibiotics using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and resistant isolates were screened molecularly for the presence of resistance gene (AmpC). AmpC screening was carried out in a step wise process of DNA extraction, quantification, amplification of <em>ampC</em> gene using appropriate primer and Agarose gel electrophoresis to reveal which DNA extracts had <em>ampC</em> genes amplified. The two most resistant isolates had their <em>16S rRNA</em> sequenced, identified and were also profiled for plasmids by extracting plasmid DNA.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Results revealed that 96.67% of isolates had MAR index greater than 0.2 indicating high a risk source of contamination where antibiotics are often used. Results also showed the presence of <em>ampC</em> gene in seven (7) out of the twelve (12) isolates screened for <em>ampC </em>gene. Molecular characterization via sequencing of the <em>16S rRNA</em> gene of the two (2) most resistant isolates confirmed that both isolates were strains of <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>. Profiling of plasmids also revealed the presence of plasmid DNA of about 10 kilo base pairs in both isolates profiled.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study has revealed the resistance ability of <em>Pseudomonas</em> and some reasons behind this resistance. Appropriate investigation into antimicrobial resistance is recommended for the administration of drugs for the treatment of food-mediated <em>Pseudomonas </em>infections.</p> 2020-07-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Coronavirus: COVID-19-Epidemiology, Treatment, Prevention and Control 2020-07-12T12:17:05+00:00 Udegbe, Chinemerem Dorathy Effiong, E. Bassey <p>Coronavirus infection is a zoonotic disease of viral origin. The SARS-CoV-2 is the novel virus that causes the ongoing pandemic affecting the global community hence a very big threat to the global public health. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first detected Wuhan, China and reported to World Health Organization (WHO) country office in China on 31<sup>st</sup> December 2019. It has since been spreading, resulting in an ongoing pandemic. As at 19 May, there are about 4.8 million cases of Covid-19 with 316,169 deaths reported in more 188 countries of the world. The initial transmission appeared to be from an animal source, but there has been person to person transmission in the affected countries. A lot of preventive and control measures have employed to severe transmission. Strategies in the control of an outbreak are containment or suppression and mitigation. Currently there is no specific vaccine or treatment for COVID-19. This work reviewed the Coronavirus Disease 19, its epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control.</p> 2020-07-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##