Journal of Advances in Microbiology 2020-11-30T14:46:40+00:00 Journal of Advances in Microbiology Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal &nbsp;of Advances in Microbiology&nbsp;(ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7116)&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JAMB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of Microbiology. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> Eco-Friendly Cinnamaldehyde Based Emulsion for Phytopathogenic Bacterial Growth Inhibitor 2020-11-30T14:46:40+00:00 Tahany G. M. Mohammed A. F. Abd El- Rahman <p>The formulation plays an essential role in achieving the successful delivery and biological activity of any plant protection products. This study aimed to develop a cinnamaldehyde water-based formulation (oil-in-water emulsion) via a high-shear stirring emulsification method. Cinnamaldehyde emulsion was successfully prepared and characterized using different physicochemical parameters (emulsion stability, persistent foaming, accelerated storage at 54°C for 2 weeks, and stability at 0°Cfor one week, as well as pH, surface tension, flash point, viscosity, and particle size distribution). Also, the antibacterial activity was verified <em>in vitro</em> against some important phytopathogenic bacteria; <em>Erwinia amylovora</em>, <em>Pectobacterium aroidearum</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, and <em>Ralstonia solanacearum</em> using well diffusion method. In addition, the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) was determined by the twofold dilution method<em>.</em> The results revealed that the prepared formulation showed good storage stability, exhibited non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior and promising antibacterial activity. The inhibition zones against the tested phytopathogenic bacteria were ranged from 10.3 mm to 52.0 mm. MICs of the prepared formulation were 15.63, 31.25, 62.5, and 15.63 μl/ml against <em>Erwinia amylovora</em>, <em>Pectobacterium aroidearum</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> and <em>Ralstonia solanacearum</em>, respectively. Our results provide an environmentally friendly formulation with promising activity to control the agricultural crop disease.</p> 2020-10-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Circulating HBV Genotypes among Animal and Non-Animal Handlers in Osun State, Nigeria 2020-11-30T14:46:19+00:00 I. O. Okonko I. R. Gidado B. U. Anomneze O. O. Opaleye <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is not uncommon among animal and non-animal handlers. The brutality of HBV infection and the outcome of treatment is linked with exact HBV genotypes. No study on the circulation of HBV genotypes has been reported among animal and non-animal handlers in Nigeria. This study was intended to evaluate the genotypic distribution among animal and non-animal handlers in Osun State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Cross-sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH), Nigeria, between June 2015 and July 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Blood samples were obtained from HBsAg positive individuals and screened for HBV-DNA from cohorts of animal and non-animal handlers. HBV-DNA was extracted, amplified and genotyped using a multiplex PCR technique with primers specific for six genotypes of HBV (Genotype A, B, C, D, E and F).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results showed that a total of 11 (6.1%) of the 180 animal and non-animal handlers evaluated were positive to HBsAg and 4.4% were positive for HBV-DNA by a semi-nested PCR using HBV specific primer pairs. The molecular analysis of the sera of 11 HBsAg positive animal and non-animal handlers showed that 72.7% of them had a true HBV infection. Results further show that genotype E (75.0%) was predominant over genotype A (12.5%) and mix genotypes (D and E) with 12.5% prevalence. Other genotypes were not detected. Of the 8 positive HBV-DNA samples, 7 (87.5%) were males and one (12.5%) was a female. All animal and non-animal handlers with true HBV infection were found to harbour HBV genotype E predominantly.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The molecular analysis of HBV-DNA and genotypes circulating among animal and non-animal handlers shows that the majority of the subjects with true HBV infection were found to predominantly harbour HBV genotype E in Osun state, Nigeria. The study further highlights the predominance HBV genotype E in Nigeria.</p> 2020-10-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Molecular Characterization of Ciprofloxacin Resistant Escherichia coli from Ghana 2020-11-30T14:46:04+00:00 Israel Mensah- Attipoe Japheth A. Opintan Mercy J. Newman Prince Pappoe- Ashong <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study aimed to characterize ciprofloxacin-resistance genes in clinical <em>Escherichia coli</em> isolates obtained from a six-month antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance from Ghana.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Eighty-three of 440 archived <em>E. coli</em> isolates were confirmed by biochemical reactions and resistance profiles by the disc diffusion method. These isolates were cultured from urine (42), stool (23), vaginal swabs (12), wounds (5) and heart valve (1) during AMR surveillance. Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) by E-test method was performed on all <em>E. coli</em> isolates that were resistant to ciprofloxacin by the disc diffusion method. Additionally, all isolates with reduced MIC to ciprofloxacin (&gt;32 µg/ml) were selected for molecular assays.&nbsp; Three chromosomal and nine plasmid-mediated resistance genes were screened in all Ciprofloxacin resistant <em>E. coli</em> (CRE) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Randomly selected amplified genes were commercially sequenced and analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In total, 47/83 (56.6%) <em>E. coli</em> isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 29 (61.7%) had MIC values greater than 32 µg/ml. Chromosomal mediated genes (<em>gyr</em>A, <em>gyr</em>B and <em>par</em>C) were present in all 29 CRE isolates (100%). Distribution of the plasmid-mediated genes were as follows; <em>qnrA </em>16/29 (55.1%), <em>qnrB</em> 16/29(55.1%), <em>qnrC</em> 22/29(75.8%), <em>qnrS</em> 26/29(89.6%), <em>qepA</em> 5/29(17.2%) and <em>oqxB</em> 19/29(65.5%). Genes encoding for altered aminoglycoside acetyltransferase [<em>aac</em>(6’)<em>1bcr</em>] were also present in all 29 CRE isolates. The majority (72.4%) of the CRE isolates had <em>gyr</em>A mutations at codons 83 and 87. In <em>par</em>C, the mutations were at codons 71 and 80. Five isolates had mutations at codon 56 and four each had mutations at positions 79 and 80.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In this study, fluoroquinolone resistance genes were identified in all CRE isolates, mostly with putative mutations in the Quinolone Resistance Determining Region (QRDR). These chromosomal and plasmid-mediated genes may be widespread in Ghana and associated with CRE from the AMR surveillance. Although new mutations points were identified in <em>par</em>C, they may not be linked to the CRE.</p> 2020-11-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Comparative Analysis of the Microbial Load of Two Drying Methods for the Preservation of Clam (Tegillarca granosa) 2020-11-30T14:45:39+00:00 Onyinyechi Rosemary Nwosu Omokaro Obire D. N. Ogbonna S. A. Wemedo <p><em>Tegillarca granosa </em>(clam) was preserved by different drying methods. The molluscan shellfish sample was smoked dried and oven dried to predict the most effective method of drying based on the microbiological quality, proximate composition and sensory evaluation of the shellfish sample. Total viable bacterial counts of <em>Tegillarca granosa</em> ranged from 2.45±1.94 - 0.19±.28 x10<sup>6</sup> cfu/g, <em>Vibrio</em> counts ranged from 3.88±3.32 - 0.00±0.00´10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g, <em>Pseudomonas</em> count ranged from 3.65±3.25 - 0.00±0.00´10<sup>3</sup> cfu/g. <em>Salmonella</em> ranged from 3.46±2.70 – 0.00±0.00´10<sup>5</sup> cfu/g. <em>Shigella</em> ranged from 3.68±2.70 – 0.00±0.00 ´ 10<sup>5</sup> cfu/g,<em> Staphylococcus</em> counts ranged from 3.67±2.81 – 1.19±2.13 ´ 10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g. Coliform counts ranged from 5.74±2.63 - 0.00±0.00´10<sup>5</sup> cfu/g,. Fungal counts ranged from 4.13±2.75 - 0.03±0.07´10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g. The bacteria isolated were <em>Bacillus</em>, <em>Enterobacter</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Klebsiella,</em> <em>Pseudomonas</em>, <em>Salmonella</em>, <em>Shigella</em>, <em>Staphylococcus</em> and <em>Vbrio</em>. The fungi isolated were <em>Aspergillus flavus</em>, <em>Aspergillus niger,</em> <em>Penicillium</em> sp and <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>. Results obtained showed that clam contains unacceptable counts of bacteria and fungi, higher than the specified standard limits of 1.0´10<sup>5</sup> cfu/g for bacteria 1.0´10<sup>2</sup> cfu/g for coliform. Proximate composition showed that smoked dried clam is nutritionally richer than oven dried clam. Protein content, carbohydrate content, fat content and moisture content were higher in smoked dried clam than oven dried clam while crude fiber and ash content were higher in oven dried clam. Sensory evaluation to determine the degree of liking showed that the smoke-dried clam was more preferred than the oven dried clam. The result of the microbial analysis revealed that fresh clam had higher microbial load than smoked dried and oven dried clam. Preservation by drying was effective in reducing the microbial load from the shellfish samples. The smoked drying method was more effective in reducing the microbial load of the shellfish samples than the oven dried samples.</p> 2020-11-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Justicia carnea Leave on Hematological Parameters in Albino Mice Carried Out in Mbingo Annex Hospital Laboratory in Bamenda, North West Region, Cameroon 2020-11-30T14:45:21+00:00 Asakizi Augustine Nji Nchang Chrysanthus Ngombe David Monyongo <p>This study is design to ascertain the hematological status in albino mice treated with <em>Justicia carnea</em> leave, which could aid in the treatment of anemia. The hematological parameters investigated include Mean Cell Volume (MCV), Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Cell Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Platelets (PLTS), Hemoglobin (Hb), Red Blood Cells (RBCs), Pack Cell Volume (PCV) and White Blood Cells (WBCs). Nine (9) male albino mice of approximately the same weight 300 g were grouped into 3 groups that’s Negative Control (NC) Positive Control (PC) and Test Control (TC), each made up of 3 mice. Negative control mice were given normal feed moisten with water,&nbsp; Positive control received diluted iron folate with normal feed, finally Test control mice were&nbsp; administered powdered leaves of <em>Justicia carnea</em> with normal feed for 7 days, after which blood samples were collected using EDTA tubes by exsanguination and run for hematological parameters using auto-hematological analyzer. The results of various groups were found to be; as there was a significant increase in RBCs, Hb, &amp; PCV (P=0.05), between the groups. No significant change was observed on the MCV, MCH, and MCHC. Lymphocytosis was observed in all groups with mark difference in granulocytosis. TC had granulocytosis, NC showed normal granulocyte scores and the PC show granulocytopenia with a statistical difference of P=0.0017. A significant difference was seen in platelets between the groups P=0.02. This study shows that J. carnea leaves possess anti-anemic potential, lending credence to the use of these plant leaves in folk medicine for the management of hemolytic anemia would be helpful. Further research on the various phytochemicals of the plant should be done and also its toxicological aspects.</p> 2020-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca (l.) Del Plant on Some Selected Clinical Human Pathogens 2020-11-30T14:45:02+00:00 G. C. Ezemokwe J. C. Aguiyi F. P. Chollom <p>The antibacterial activity of the leaf extract of <em>Balanites aegyptiaca</em> plant was investigated on five selected clinical common human pathogens:<em> Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Streptococcus pneumonia</em>, <em>Salmonella typhimurium,</em> <em>Shigella dysentriae</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>in vitro</em>. The phytochemical screening, susceptibility testing and Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations were determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaf extracts indicated the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, glycosides, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, and carbohydrates in varying concentrations. Ethanolic leaf extract was more effective. The extracts inhibited the growth of isolates with increasing concentrations, ranging from 8-12 mm zones of inhibitions, showing the susceptibility of the test organisms. <em>S. dysentriae</em> had the highest susceptibility for both extracts with 12 mm and 13 mm zones of inhibition for aqueous and ethanolic extracts respectively at the highest concentration of 400 mg/ml. <em>S. aureus</em> showed the least susceptibility with 8 mm for aqueous extract while <em>S. typhimurium</em> showed the least susceptibility for the ethanolic extract with 9mm zones of inhibition. The analysis of variance results on zones of inhibition revealed a significant difference for both extract treatments, concentrations, and interactions between the treatments and concentrations. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations determined from the corresponding concentration-response curves showed that <em>S. dysentriae</em> had the least value of 79.433 mg/ml while the aqueous extracts against <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>S. typhimurium</em> were the largest with 125.893 mg/ml value. The activity index and activity were also deduced to measure activity. The antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of <em>B. aegyptiaca</em> on bacteria of the tested isolates have been established in this study and justify the claims by the traditional healers in its use to treat infectious diseases.</p> 2020-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Microbiological Quality of "Soumbala", an African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) Condiment Sold in the Markets of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire 2020-11-30T10:07:56+00:00 Kambire Ollo Boli Zamblé Bi Irié Abel Yao Konan Mathurin Ahipo Diane Marcelle Pascale Koffi-Nevry Rose <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Produced in an artisanal way from the fermentation of the seeds of <em>Parkia biglobosa</em>, “Soumbala”, is a condiment very appreciated in several African countries including Côte d'Ivoire. This study was&nbsp; conducted to assess the microbiological quality and fungal profile of this condiment sold in the markets of nine communes in Abidjan.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Food safety.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Soumbala's samples were collected in the markets during the month of October 2019 and analyzed at the Laboratory of Microbiology and Food Biotechnology of the Nangui Abrogoua University, Côte d'Ivoire.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> For this purpose, 27 samples of "Soumbala" were taken from the different markets and analysed. The loads of the different microorganisms (mesophilic aerobic germs, total coliforms, moulds) were determined by counting after culture in agar medium. The microbiological quality has been assessed according to Directive 2005/2073/EC. The physico-chemical composition (pH, titratable acidity, moisture content) of "Soumbala" has been determined according to standard methods. The identification of the mould strains isolated from the different samples was carried out using the identification keys.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of the various physico-chemical parameters obtained ranged from 13.81 to 20.31%, 5.58 to 6.50 and 3.73 to 9.06 % for moisture content, pH and titratable acidity, respectively. The mesophilic aerobic germ loads of 7.21 to 7.70 log<sub>10</sub> cfu/g determined in the analyzed samples are above the acceptability limit (6 log<sub>10</sub> cfu/g) applied in this study. The maximum loading of total coliforms was 3.92 log<sub>10</sub> cfu/g. All mould loads are below the acceptability limit. The mould strains isolated and identified from the identification keys belong to the genus <em>Aspergillus</em>.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion :</strong> A public health risk related to the consumption of "Soumbala" could exist if these moulds produced mycotoxin.&nbsp;</p> 2020-11-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##