Journal of Advances in Microbiology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal &nbsp;of Advances in Microbiology&nbsp;(ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7116)&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JAMB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of Microbiology. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Advances in Microbiology 2456-7116 Percentage Bioremediation Assessment of Spent Mushroom Substrate (SMS) and Mucor racemosus in Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of the study was to assess Percentage Bioremediation of Spent Mushroom Substrate (SMS) and <em>Mucor</em> <em>racemosus </em>in hydrocarbon contaminated soil</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> A portion of Rivers State University demonstration farmland in Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Mile 3 Diobu area of Port Harcourt, Rivers State was used for this study. The piece of land is situated at Longitude 4°48’18.50’’N and Latitude 6o58’39.12’’E measuring 5.4864 m x 5.1816 m with a total area of 28.4283 m2. Bioremediation monitoring lasted for 56 days, analysis carried out weekly (per 7 days’ interval).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Five (5) experimental plots employing the Randomized Block Design were used each having dimensions of 100 x 50 x 30 cm (Length x Breadth x Height) = 150,000cm<sup>3</sup>. Baseline study of the uncontaminated and the deliberately contaminated agricultural soil was investigated for its microbiota and physico-chemical properties. Two of these plots were designated as pristine (Unpolluted soil) (CTRL 1) and crude oil contaminated soil without nutrient organics and bioaugmenting microbes (CTRL 2); these two serve as controls. Each of the experimental plots, except the control (CTRL 1), was contaminated with 2500 cm<sup>3</sup> (2122.25 g) of crude oil giving initial Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) value of 8729.00 mg/kg. The crude oil polluted soil in Plot 3 was further treated with 750 ml of <em>Mucor</em> <em>racemosus</em> broth (CS+Muc), Plot 4 was treated with 3000 g of Spent Mushroom Substrate (CS+SMS) while plot 5 was treated with the combination of both (CS+Muc+SMS). The plots were left for 7 days to ensure even distribution and soil-oil bonding. Sampling was done at seven-day interval (Day 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56).&nbsp; Physicochemical parameters monitored were pH, Temperature, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) throughout the experimental period. Microbial parameters monitored were Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Heterotrophic Fungi (THF), Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria (HUB) and Hydrocarbon Utilizing Fungi (HUF). Percentage (%) Bioremediation was estimated from percentage (%) reduction of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) from day 1 to day 56 in relation to control plots.&nbsp; Net % Bioremediation were also assessed to ascertain the actual potential of treatment agents singly or combined.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB) (CFU/g) recorded on day 7 and day 56 of the bioremediation were; day 7; CTRL 1 – US (1.07 x10<sup>9</sup>), CTRL- CS (5.4 x10<sup>8</sup>), CS+Muc (3.0 x10<sup>8</sup>), CS+SMS (4.6 x10<sup>8</sup>) and CS+Muc+SMS (5.0 x10<sup>8</sup>). On day 56, data obtained were CTRL 1 –US (9.4 x10<sup>8</sup>), CTRL 2 –CS (7.2 x10<sup>9</sup>), CS+Muc (3.7 x10<sup>8</sup>), CS+SMS (8.1x10<sup>8</sup>) and CS+Muc+SMS (6.8 x10<sup>8</sup>). The increase in number in the treated plots is a depiction of an increase in activity of the organism and the stimulating effect of bio-organics SMS while the untreated plot CTRL 1-US showed decrease in population at day 56. Similar trend showed for Total Heterotrophic Fungi. Generally, it was observed that the highest growth/ count was recorded at the 7<sup>th</sup> and 8<sup>th</sup> week (day 42 or day 49), at the 9<sup>th</sup> week there was an observable decrease; probably due to depletion of nutrients and other factors such as rainfall and seepage. The Net Percentage Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria and Fungi (Net %HUB and Net %HUF) were highest in Crude Oil contaminated plot treated with Spent Mushroom Substrate (SMS) singly; that is (CS+SMS) (11.02% and 12.07%) and lowest in the uncontaminated soil – Control (CTRL 1 –US) (5.41% and 9.26%) respectively. The trend in decreasing order of Net % Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria were as follows: CS+SMS (11.02%) &gt; CS+Muc+SMS (10.14%) &gt; CS+Muc (9.43%) &gt; CTRL 2 –CS (8.1%) &gt; CTRL 1 –US (5.41%) while Net % Hydrocarbon Utilizing Fungi followed similar trend and were: CS+SMS (12.07%) &gt; CS+Muc+SMS (11.76%) = CS+Muc (11.76%) &gt; CTRL 2 –CS (11.05%) &gt; CTRL 1 –US (9.26%). Evaluation of Amount of Crude Oil or Hydrocarbon remediated and Net %Bioremediation revealed Crude Oil contaminated plot augmented with <em>Mucor</em> <em>racemosus</em> broth singly (CS+Muc) as having the highest bioremediation potential while the least is the untreated soil. The trend is as follows:&nbsp; CS+Muc (8599.19 mg/kg; 33.93%) &gt; CS+Muc+SMS (8298.95 mg/kg; 32.74%) &gt; CS+SMS (8197.03 mg/kg; 32.34%) &gt; CTRL 2 –CS (166.54 mg/kg; 0.66%) &gt; CTRL 1 –US (85.48 mg/kg; 0.34%)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This shows that a single nutrient substrate or augmenting microorganism applied appropriately may have a more positive result, that is; higher bioremediation potential than combined or multiple mixed treatments. It was further observed that microbial counts decreased with time in treatments with augmenting organisms alone but increased considerably in treatments supplement with organics having its peak on the 49<sup>th</sup> day.&nbsp;&nbsp; It is therefore recommended that bioremediation of crude oil-polluted soil using bio-augmenting microorganism should be applied appropriately noting the volume: area ratio and be supplemented with efficient nutrient organics after every 49-day interval.</p> D. N. Ogbonna S. A. Ngah R. N. Okparanma O. Ule R. R. Nrior ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 1 21 10.9734/jamb/2020/v20i1230305 Assessment of Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Table Water Sold in School Campuses of the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria <p>Water is the elixir of life which is essential for proper metabolic processes to take place. The quest for cheap and readily available source of potable water has led to the emergence of sachet and bottle water which the sale and consumption continue to grow astronomically and rapidly in most countries of the world. This study was aimed at assessing the microbial and physicochemical water quality of table water sold on School campuses. Standard microbiological procedures were used to isolate and identify various microbial genera associated with the water samples using morphological, microscopic and biochemical characterization method. The bacterial genera identified were <em>Escherichia sp., Streptococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Vibrio cholera., Staphylococcus sp.</em> and <em>Bacillus sp. </em>with Choba campus having the highest microbial contamination of packaged water. However, the results of the physicochemical properties from this study were all below the WHO recommended limits. The temperature and pH ranged between 26-27°C and 6.98-7.08, respectively. The values of the electrical conductivity ranged from 0.080 to 0.150 µs/cm; turbidity ranged between 0.40-1.40 NTU; chloride ranged between 1.187-2.103 mg/l, nitrate was within the range of 0.01 to 0.14 mg/l; BOD ranged from 0.02-0.04 mg/l, COD was between 0.00-0.08 mg/l and the total soluble solids were between the ranges of 0.04-0.10 mg/l. Therefore, this study suggests the improvement of water-borne disease preventive and control measures, and monitoring of water quality by the regulatory agencies to ensure good manufacturing practices by the water bottling companies which will result in reduction of health hazards associated with water borne diseases.</p> Stephenson Danagogo Lawson Abiye Anthony Ibiene Victoria Amadi Stella Ogbonnie Enyinnaya Lasbry Chidi Nnodim Gift Atumatuchukwu Uzah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 22 33 10.9734/jamb/2020/v20i1230306 Citric Acid Production from Waste Substrate by Using Some Fungi <p>Citric acid is one of the most commonly used and easily available multifunctional organic acids. This is widely used in different industrial applications. Citric acid is 2hydroxyl 1,2,3 propanetricarboxylic acid. It is present in many fruits and vegetables. Citric acid is usually found in lemon. The global demand for Citric acid is about 6.08x10<sup>5</sup>per year its uses are increasing day by day. <em>Aspergillus niger</em> and <em>Aspergillus flavus</em> organisms are used for citric acid production. In this present study citric acid production from the different waste substrates such as Banana peels, Coconut husk, and Rice straw were carried out using <em>Aspergillus niger</em> and <em>Aspergillus flavus</em> isolated from soil sample. Characterization and identification were done with the help of microscopic examination based on lactophenol cotton blue staining. <em>Aspergillus niger</em> and <em>Aspergillus flavus</em> are appeared as branched hypae with conidial spore. The production of citric acid was performed by solid state fermentation and estimated on the different fermentation days, different pH and different concentration of substrate. We observed that high level of citric acid production was on 9<sup>th</sup> day of fermentation as compared to others days of fermentation.</p> Shrishti Sharma Suruchi Parkhey Ashish Saraf Sachin Das ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-13 2021-01-13 34 56 10.9734/jamb/2020/v20i1230307 Changes in Acid-pH Resistance of Food Spoilage and Pathogens Spore-Forming Bacteria in Cameroonian Indigenous Sorghum-Based Acidic Beers before and after Sublethal Thermal Stresses <p>Fermented alcoholic beverages play a major role in the socio-cultural lives of people of Northern Cameroon. However, reports of shelf-life and health problems associated with indigenous sorghum-based alcoholic beverages are a major call for concern. This study aimed to highlight the additional effects of sublethal temperatures (no thermal treatment and 10, 45, 50 and 60°C for 45, 90, 180 min) and acidic pH of beers (2.79 and 2.63 for 45, 90, 180 min) on fate of four food spoilage and pathogens spore-forming bacteria. The experiments were carried out on real food products formed by two indigenous sorghum-based alcoholic beverages. Pasteurized traditional beers were significantly efficient on all unstressed bacterial spores after 180 minutes of treatment. In addition, spores of <em>B. megapterium </em>and <em>G. stearothermophilus </em>were more sensitive in white beer pH 2.79 and red beer pH 2.63 respectively. Previous thermal treatments of spores at certain sublethal temperatures have significantly (P=0.05) decreased the effect of both acidic beers on stressed spores. It was noticed that the spores of <em>B. subtilis</em>&nbsp; stressed at 10°C, <em>G.</em>&nbsp;<em>stearothermophilus </em>(former <em>Bacillus</em><em>&nbsp;stearothermophilus</em>) spores submitted at 45°C and the spores of <em>B. cereus</em> thermally stressed at 50°C and 60°C for 45, 90, 180 minutes were significantly (P=0.05)&nbsp; less affected by the white beer at pH 2.79. Whereas, in the red beer at pH 2.63, the spores of <em>B. subtilis </em>sublethally stressed at 10°C and the spores of <em>B. cereus </em>stressed at 45°C, 50°C and 60°C were more acid resistant and very weakly affected by acid pH of the alcoholic beverages. The study delivered some overview on the potential microbial (stability and safety) consequences of the current tendency towards milder cold and heat treatments which are greatly used in the food-grade industry.</p> James Ronald Bayoï Roger Djoulde Darman Francois-Xavier Etoa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-14 2021-01-14 57 69 10.9734/jamb/2020/v20i1230308