Journal of Advances in Microbiology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal &nbsp;of Advances in Microbiology&nbsp;(ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7116)&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JAMB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of Microbiology. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Advances in Microbiology 2456-7116 Antibacterial Effects of Fenugreek, Wheat and Hot Red Pepper Seeds and Their Germs Extract on Inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae Growth <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The work investigated the effects of plant seeds such as fenugreek (<em>Trigonella foenum-graecum </em>L.), wheat grains (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L.), and hot red pepper (<em>Capsicum annuum</em> L.) which are traditionally used as natural food preservatives or at least to minimize the used concentrations of artificial preservative, meantime to serve as antibacterial agents against certain positive and negative gram bacteria such as <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> ATCC 29213 and <em>Enterobacter cloacae</em> Enk1 LT592256 and the effectiveness of using germinated seeds in reducing bacterial growth.</p> <p><strong>Study Design</strong><strong>:</strong> The experiments were designed as one way completely randomized design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The experiments were carried out at the Regional Center for Food and Feed (RCFF), Agricultural Research Center, and Faculty of Agriculture Saba Basha, Alexandria University, Egypt.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The living bacterial cells in each treatment was estimated after 5 days of incubation at 25°C the total viable bacterial counts were determined using the plate count agar method. Microbial numbers in all samples were determined using serial dilutions also, determine the total flavonoids, antioxidant activity, and total phenol contents of the tested seeds and their germs.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Our results demonstrated that the maximum number of <em>S. aureus</em> bacteria in 10<sup>-1</sup> on wheat germinated seeds extract at 1000 µl that is 290 CFU and the maximum number of <em>E. cloaceae</em> was 370 CFU was found in wheat non-germinated seeds at 500µl concentration, however, the highly inhibitory concentration of <em>S. aureus</em> 1000 µl was realized using non-germinated red pepper seeds extract (97.9%) and (92.9%) in the case of <em>E. cloaceae</em> bacteria. The maximum inhibition percentage was found with red pepper non-germinated seeds for (<em>S. aureus</em>) it was (97.9%) and for the (<em>E. cloaceae</em>) was (92.9%) under the concentration 1000 µl. The results showed that germs extract was less effective as an antibacterial agent than seed extract. <em>S. aureus</em> was more susceptible than <em>E. cloacae</em>. The use of hot red pepper seeds extracts then fenugreek extract was highly effective in reducing the growth of both the tested bacteria.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Hot pepper and fenugreek extracts can be used as natural alternative preventives to control food poisoning diseases. Non Germinated seeds are &nbsp;most effective against studied bacteria growth.</p> Nesrine H. Youssef Mayada A. Sabra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-17 2021-04-17 1 16 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i430338 Bioethanol Production from an Underutilized Plant, Calabash (Crescentia Cujete) Using Co-Culture of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and Cronobacter Malonaticus <p>Response surface methodology (RSM) model was used to optimize ethanol production from calabash (<em>Crescentia cujete</em>) pulp juice using co-culture of <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> and <em>Cronobacter malonaticus. </em>The calabash pulp was squeezed with muslin cloth, and vacuum filtered to clear solution before use. The clear juice was tested for reducing sugars using the Dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method. Twenty three runs (23), including 3 controls, of the fermentation were conducted at varying temperatures, pH, and volumes of inoculum. The process parameters (input variables): volumes of inoculum, temperature, and pH were subjected to response surface model, using the Central composite design (CCD). Fermentation was done in conical flasks covered with cotton wool and foil in a stationary incubator for four days (96 hours). Active co-culture of <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> and <em>Cronobacter malonaticus</em> was used, with inoculum developed using Marcfaland’s method. Samples were collected every 24 hours, centrifuged, filtered and analyzed for measurement of the output variables: reducing sugar, cell density and ethanol concentration. The concentration of reducing sugars from Calabash pulp was 3.2 mg/ml. Results obtained also revealed that the fermentation can take place on a wide range of temperature; 29-31.6<sup>0</sup>C . The optimal pH range for performance of the co-culture for the fermentation process was pH range 7.9- 8.0. The optimum volume of inoculum was 5.5%v/v (ie 5.5 ml in 94.5ml juice). The optimized process using the RSM model gave 6.97% v/v bioethanol at 29<sup>o</sup>C and pH 7.9. The bioethanol yield from Calabash substrate is reasonable with co-culture considering the concentration of reducing sugars obtained from the juice and the duration of the fermentation.</p> N. U. Nwogwugwu G.O. Abu O. Akaranta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-17 2021-04-17 17 33 10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i430339