Journal of Advances in Microbiology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal &nbsp;of Advances in Microbiology&nbsp;(ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7116)&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JAMB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of Microbiology. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Advances in Microbiology 2456-7116 The Prevalence Rate of Helicobacter pylori amongst Patients Presenting with Presumptive Gastritis in Rivers State, Nigeria Using Antigen Detection Method <p><strong>Background:</strong> Gastritis is an inflammation of the protective lining of the stomach which has been a global burden in the past decades. It can be caused by irritation, excessive alcohol use, chronic vomiting, stress, or the use of certain medications such as aspirin or other anti-inflammatory drugs. It may also be caused by <em>Helicobacter pylori</em>- a gram-negative, microaerophilic, spiral (helical) bacterium usually found in the stomach.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A cross-sectional, hospital-based study aimed at determining the prevalence rate of <em>Helicobacter pylori</em> amongst patients presenting with presumptive gastritis was carried out at gastroenterology clinic of Rivers State University Teaching Hospital Port Harcourt. Two hundred and forty<em> two</em> (242) male and female participants were recruited randomly for the study, their stool samples were analyzed using On Site <em>H. </em><em>p</em><em>ylori</em> antigen® (USA) and fecal occult blood (ROSTEC™) Rapid Diagnostic Test Kits, while characteristics and symptoms for gastritis were assessed with pretest questionnaires. Data generated from this study were statistically analyzed using MS Excel 2007 and represented in charts and tables.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The prevalence rate of <em>H. Pylori</em> was found to be 55% in Rivers State University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH) with a higher prevalence among females than males and an increase in prevalence but decline above 49 years.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>H. pylori testing should be regarded as an important aspect in clinical practice to help in treatment and better eradication of the infection in patients; this will lead to a significant decrease in gastritis in patients of different age group whether with symptoms or asymptomatic.</p> V. N. Agi O. A. Ollor C. A. Azike D. B. Naziga ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 1 12 10.9734/jamb/2022/v22i730468 Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Infections among Pregnant Women at Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital Lafia, Nasarawa State Nigeria <p>Hepatitis infections are global public health concern more especially hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections which can easily be transmitted from mothers to newborn babies through contact with body secretions. This research was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Viral Hepatitis B and C infections among pregnant women in Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital Lafia, Nasarawa State. Cross sectional study design was carried out from January 2017 to December 2017 among 374 pregnant women. Blood sample was collected from each pregnant woman and screened using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit produced by Nantong Diagnos Biotechnology Co., Ltd., China. Overall prevalence infections of viral hepatitis B and C among the participant was 35(9.4%) and 18(4.8%) respectively. Hepatitis B prevalence was higher than Hepatitis C (P&gt;0.05). Some of the pregnant women were found to be multi-gravida patients ranged from 20-29 years of age with prevalence of 9.6% HBV and 5.1% HCV (P&gt; 0.05). The findings of this research suggest need to initiate public awareness to reduce disease load and transmission; immunization to all pregnant women and their newborn babies.</p> I. G. Innocent M. I. Kuleve G. C. Ajugwo I. I. Anekwe V. K. Fadayomi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 13 18 10.9734/jamb/2022/v22i730470 Screening for Biodegradation Potential of Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from the Roots and Leaves of Mangrove Plants (Avicennia germinans) (Black Mangrove), Acrostichum aureum (Golden Leather Fern) and Rhizophora mangle (Red Mangrove) <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of this study is to screen and determine the biodegradation potential of the endophytic bacteria isolated from roots and leaves of mangrove plants.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>In this work were isolated, identified and screened endophytic bacteria from roots of <em>Rhizophora mangle</em>, <em>Avicennia germinans </em>and<em> Acrostichum aureum; </em>the three major species of mangrove plants found in the Niger Delta. The roots were transported in a sterile bag to the Microbiology Laboratory and treated using standard Microbiological techniques. The organisms isolated include: <em>Pseudomonas </em>sp, <em>Bacillus </em>sp, <em>Staphylococcus </em>sp, <em>Micrococcus </em>sp, <em>Klebsiella </em>sp, <em>Azotobacter </em>sp, <em>Nitrobacter</em> sp. and <em>Nitrosomonas</em> sp. These organisms were screened for their ability to degrade crude oil by analyzing them using an ultra-violet spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 600nm and through a colorimetric test that involves the use of 2,6, Dichlorophenol-indophenol (DCPIP) as the metabolic activity indicator for a 14 days period.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>According to the colorimetric test, isolates that were positive hydrocarbon degraders were observed by a colour change from blue to colourless, which include: <em>Pseudomonas </em>sp, <em>Staphylococcus </em>sp, <em>Bacillus </em>sp, <em>Klebsiella </em>sp<em> and Nitrobacter </em>sp<em>, </em>while those that changed from blue to pink(an indication of a negative reaction) were: <em>Nitrosomonas </em>sp<em>, Bacillus </em>sp<em>, Micrococcus </em>sp<em>, Staphylococcus </em>sp<em>, Azotobacter </em>sp<em> and Klebsiella </em>sp. Amount degraded and percentage biodegradation ranged from M<em>icrococcus</em> sp 278.6 (6.2%) ˂ <em>Azotobacter</em> sp. 1242.8 (17.8%) ˂ <em>Nitrosomonas</em> sp 1392.9 (19.9%) ˂ <em>Staphylococcus</em> sp1543.0 (22.1%) ˂ <em>Bacillus</em> sp 17927.8 (25.6%) ˂ <em>Nitrobacter </em>sp 1935.7 (28%) ˂ <em>Klebsiella </em>sp 3392.9 (48.5%) ˂ <em>Bacillus </em>sp 3671.4 (52.5%) ˂ <em>Pseudomonas </em>sp 4942.8 (70%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong><em>Pseudomonas </em>and<em> Bacillus </em>species demonstrated the highest potential to degrade crude oil and can therefore be used in bioremediation of water ecosystem impacted by crude oil. Hence, the scientific contribution of this research is related to identifying several culturable groups of bacteria that might be directed to these further biotechnological approaches.</p> Somiari, Adaobi Assumpta Abiye Douglas, Salome Ibietela Nrior, Renner Renner ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-12 2022-05-12 19 28 10.9734/jamb/2022/v22i730471 Fluoroquinolone Resistant Salmonella Species <p>Fluoroquinolones are widely used most effective medication, systemic antibacterial that have long been used against respiratory and Urinary Tract Infections. Fluoroquinolones are effective against both aerobic and anaerobic gram positive and negative bacteria, most especially <em>Salmonella</em> species.&nbsp; Resistance comes as a curse with antibiotics that occurs when bacteria change in some way that reduces or eliminates the effectiveness of drugs, chemicals or other agents designed to cure or prevent infections. The main problem connected with the therapeutic use of fluoroquinolones is the establishment of more virulent and resistant Salmonella species due to the development of either altered DNA-binding proteins or efflux pump mechanisms for antibiotics. It is currently a serious public health threat that affects people all around the world. When a Salmonella species develops resistance to fluoroquinolones, the fluoroquinolones are no longer effective in treating Salmonella infections. This review provides an overview of <em>Salmonella </em>infection, and discusses the fluoroquinolones, Mechanisms of antibiotics resistance in Salmonella, Pathogenesis of <em>Salmonella</em> species and clinical manifestations.</p> Caleb Ndako Angulu Sadiq Umar Maryam Godiya Peter Mamman Innocent Apameio Jesse Agholor Kin Yakubu Mahmud ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-14 2022-05-14 29 36 10.9734/jamb/2022/v22i730472