Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Mucuna Beans Flour Fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum as a Probiotic Food

O. Ojokoh Anthony, A. Oyetayo Micheal, S. Ojokoh Eromosele

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2016/30143

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate Mucuna beans flour fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum in vitro and in vivo for probiotic activities. The L. plantarum used was isolated from neonate ‘ogi’ made from sorghum thereafter, which was screened for growth and survival in the mucuna beans flour.

Methodology: The methods used involved overnight broth cultures of test isolates L. plantarum which were centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 15 min. The pellets were rinsed out thrice with 10 ml phosphate buffer saline (PBS) into sterilized universal bottles and kept as stock cultures in the refrigerator at 4 ± 2°C. The total viable cells in the stock solution was then determined using serial dilution and pour plate methods. Proximate analysis was carried out on both the fermented and un-fermented samples.

Results: From the results obtained during the study, at the end of 72 hour fermentation at 37°C, the L. plantarum showed appreciable growth (8.83x106 cfu/g). After storage for 14 days at refrigeration (4 ± 2°C) and room temperature (25 ± 2°C), there was a considerable increase in the lactobacillus found in the products stored at room temperature (13.67±32.40x106 cfu/g) compared to the one stored at refrigeration temperature (8.47±2.19 x105 cfu/g). It was observed that there was a steady increase in the total titratable acidity and temperature with concomitant reduction in the pH of samples during the fermentation period. The proximate analysis showed that there was an increase in the protein and moisture contents with decrease in Carbohydrates, fats, fibre and ash contents of the fermented samples compared to the unfermented sample. Furthermore, the body weight of the rats fed with the fermented product was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than the control group. Also, the Haematological analysis showed that the rats infected with the pathogens and later fed with the fermented mucuna beans flour recovered fully since their values are well within the permissible limit and are not significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different from the control group.

Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that mucuna beans flour fermented with L. plantarum could be used as an ideal probiotic food.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Habitat Locations on the Bacteriological and Physicochemical Assessment of Aquaculture Freshwater Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Using Small Scale Depuration System

Anyiam C. Albert, Ezeama C. Felix, Ojokoh E. Solomon, Emeh C. Cynthia

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2016/30160

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of habitat locations on the bacteriological and physicochemical assessment of aquaculture freshwater fish (Clarias gariepinus) using a small scale depuration system. Catfish samples were harvested from two different locations, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture (MOUAU) and Umugbalu fish farm.

Methodology: The fish samples were subjected to depuration for a period of 48 h. The total bacteria count of the fish samples was determined and the isolates characterized before and after depuration time. The total bacteria count (TBC) and other selected pathogenic bacteria in water and the fish organs recorded significant difference (p < 0.05) with TBC having the highest (1.90 x 106cfuml-1) in water sample from Umugbalu habitat. The TBC and other pathogenic bacteria from different fish organs (gill, muscle and gut) differed, which recorded 1.52 x 106, 1.41 x 106, 1.60 x 106cfug-1 (TBC); 9.9 x 105, 9.0 x 105, 9.5 x 105cfug-1 (Coliform); 2.0 x 105, <101, 1.5 x 105cfug-1 (Listeria spp); 3.5 x 105, 2.7 x 105, 4.0 x 106cfug-1 (Salmonella spp) respectively as typically observed in samples from MOUAU habitat. For pH, temperature, salinity and turbidity, water sample from MOUAU had the lowest values of 5.45, 30.0oC, 4.10ppt and 20.0NTU and 7.60mg/l respectively.

Conclusion: Small scale depuration system was adequate for the assessment of bacterial quality of the water and the freshwater fish organs. The results obtained in this study have underscored the importance of adequate processing and cooking prior to consumption of freshwater fish. The Physicochemical parameters of the ecosystem investigated, differed from one location to the other.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occurrence of Hepatitis B and C Viral Infections among Pregnant Women in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

P. C. Inyang-Etoh, R. U. Aganyi, T. U. Agan, U. Opara-Osuoha

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2016/30868

Aims: To determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV among pregnant women in Calabar, and the possible predisposing factors of the disease. 

Study Design: This was a cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in Calabar, the capital city of Cross River State, Nigeria between May, 2014 and February, 2015.

Methodology: Ethical approval was obtained, consent forms were signed by the patients, questionnaires were also administered to capture socio demographic information followed by collection and processing of specimens. Five millitre (5 ml) of blood was collected from 300 pregnant (test) and 100 non pregnant (control) subjects and their sera tested for HBV and HCV using One step HBsAg strip and One step Anti-HCV strip. Both manufactured by ACON Laboratories incorporated, USA. Questionnaires were also administered.

Results: Of the 300 pregnant women examined, infection with HBsAg was observed in only 14(4.7%). There was no infection with Hepatitis C virus and no mixed infection with both viruses. Among the 100 control (non-pregnant) women examined, infection with HBV was observed in only 6(6%) with no infection with Hepatitis ‘C’ virus and no mixed infection with both viruses. Respondents in the age group 36-40 years had the highest rate of HBV infection 8(57.1%), but this was not statistically significant (P= 0.052). In the nature of marriage category, respondents who were separated from their spouse had the highest rate of HBV infection 2(33.3%). In terms of occupation, respondents in the category of business women had the highest rate of HBV 4(6.1%) while traders had the lowest rate of HBV infection 0(0%). Respondents who were not educated in the educational status category had the highest rate of HBV infection 2(33.3%), while respondents with the secondary level of education had the lowest rate of HBV infection 4(3.2%). Respondent in their first trimester of pregnancy had the highest level of HBV infection 6(3.7%) while those in their second trimester had the lowest rate of HBV infection 2(2.1%).

Conclusion: This study has revealed HBV among pregnant women in Calabar and therefore recommends that a routine screening of this category of patients be made mandatory during their antenatal clinic in order to achieve their proper clinical management and reduction of vertical transmission of the disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Habitat Locations on the Bacterial and Water Quality Changes in Freshwater Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Using Small Scale Depuration

Anyiam C. Albert, Ezeama C. Felix, Emeh C. Cynthia, Ojokoh S. Eromosele

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2016/30285

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of habitat locations on the bacteriological and physicochemical assessment of aquaculture freshwater Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using a small scale depuration system.

Methodology: Nile Tilapia samples were harvested from two different locations Michael Okpara University of Agriculture (MOUAU) and Umugbalu fish farm. The Nile Tilapia sample was subjected to depuration for a period of 48 h. The total bacteria count (TBC) of the Tilapia samples were determined and isolates characterized before and after depuration. The total bacteria count (TBC) and other selected pathogenic bacteria in water and different fish organs differed significantly              (p < 0.05) with TBC being the highest (1.80 x 106 cfuml-1) in water from Umugbalu habitat. The TBC and other pathogenic bacteria from different fish organs (gill, muscle and gut) differed, being 1.41 x 106, 1.10 x 106, 1.50 x 106 cfug-1 (TBC); 8.3 x 105, 7.4 x 105, 9.5 x 105 cfug-1 (Coliform); 1.4 x 105, <101, <101 cfug-1 (Listeria spp); 2.7 x 105, 2.3 x 105, 3.9 x 106 cfug-1 (Salmonella spp) respectively as typically observed in samples from MOUAU habitat. For pH, temperature, salinity and turbidity, water sample from Umugbalu location had the highest values of 6.80, 30.9°C, 6.50 ppt and 26.0NTU and 7.00 ml/g respectively.

Conclusion: Small scale depuration system was adequate for the assessment of bacterial quality of the water and freshwater Tilapia organs. Furthermore, habitats as investigated in this study revealed that the water sample was grossly contaminated with pathogenic bacteria and as such could affect fish cultivation and the consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Antibiotics Resistant Salmonella in the Abidjan North Wastewater in 2012 and Potential Health Risks to the Population

Coulibaly- Kalpy Julien, Koffi Kouadio Stephane, Dou Serge, Bamba Aboubacar, Kacou- N’douba Adèle, Dosso Mireille

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2016/30308

Salmonella cause salmonellosis, a disease which most common symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Aims: The purpose of this study was to highlight the health risks linked to Salmonella for the population through the study of wastewater in the Indénié wastewater discharge adjacent to major effluents in the Gourou Basin.

Materials and Methods: From June to August 2012, wastewater samples were collected from two selected reservoir adjacent to the Gourou Basin collectors at the crossroads of Indénié in Abidjan. About 500 mL of collected wastewater was used to search for the bacteria of the genus Salmonella according to the standard NF EN ISO 6579. The identification was made using the API 20E gallery and confirmed by MADITOFF-MS. Bacteria strains serotyping was performed and the Kirby Baeur disc diffusion method was used for the antibiotic and susceptibility study.

Results and Discussion: A total of 112 samples were collected and were used to isolate 18 strains of Salmonella. Serotyping showed 8 different serotypes with a predominance of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Poeseldorf. The prevalence of Salmonella resistant to antibiotics in this study was 4.46%. About 27.80% of antibiotic resistant Salmonella, were resistant to at least one antibiotic. Salmonella strains were all sensitive (100%) to 3rd generation cephalosporins (C3G), 16.67% of resistant strains showed cross-resistance to quinolones. In this study, it was demonstrated the biological risks involved by the presence of Salmonella in the wastewater. The prevalence rate and the serotype highlighted were different from that of similar study conducted in Africa.

Conclusion: The wastewater contamination by Salmonella may constitute a risk of diffusion of antibiotic resistant Salmonella in the population.