Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Analysis of Ready-To-Eat-Foods Obtained from Bukaterian within the Ekiti State University and Environment, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Peter Oluwayinka Akindele, Kazeem Adewumi Ibrahim

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2016/30948

Food-borne diseases are the global public health problem. At random 75 food samples comprising of fifteen each of the five commonly eaten ready-to-eat foods (rice, beans, yam, fufu and meat) were collected from different vendors of the university. Aerobic bacterial count and fungal count were determined by counting the colonies on nutrient agar plates and saboraud dextrose agar plates respectively. The identification of the organisms was determined by their morphology, culture characteristics and biochemical profile. The result obtained revealed that Mean aerobic plate counts ranged from 1.0 x 102 cfu/g (rice) to 6.0 x 104 cfu/g (meat) and mean fungal count ranged from 1.3 x 102 cfu/g (rice) to 5.2 x 104 cfu/g (meat). A total of eleven species (spp) of microorganisms including Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., Clostridium perfringens, Shigella spp., Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter spp., Aspergillus spp. and Mucor spp. were isolated from the food samples. Bacillus cereus had the highest percentage frequency with (18.12%) while Campylobacter spp. had the lowest percentage frequency with (1.45%). Fufu had the highest percentage of contamination of 35.51% with lowest in yam and meat which both had 5.8%. Based on the specifications by International Commission for Microbiological Specification for Foods (ICMSF), the level of contaminations was within acceptable microbiological limits except for Meat and Fufu; this could be attributed to inadequate processing, poor handling practices and post-cross contamination which can pose danger to the health of the consumers. It is recommended that regular microbiological quality control programs and good hygiene practices should be encourage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Timely Detection of Drug-resistant Tuberculosis Using Thin Layer Agar in Nigeria

N. O. Umoh, B. D. Thumamo Pokam, A. N. Umo, A. E. Asuquo

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2016/31050

Background: The global prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis poses serious public health challenges which have heightened the need for evaluation and utilization of new tools for the disease diagnosis, especially in developing countries. In order to evaluate the rapidity and accuracy of Thin Layer Agar (TLA) in the diagnosis of drug resistant TB; a comparative study was carried out in Nigeria.

Methods: Concentrated sputum specimens were inoculated onto Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) slopes and quadrant TLA petri-plates containing 0.2 μg/ml of isoniazid, 0.5 μg/ml of rifampicin, 0.5 mg/ml of para-nitrobenzoic acid (PNB), and growth medium without drug served as control. Inoculated TLA plates were sealed, incubated, and examined microscopically at regular intervals for the appearance of microcolonies; and compared with the conventional LJ-proportion method.

Results: The mean time-to–detection of rifampicin-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) was 13 days and 56 days using TLA and LJ-proportion method respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, overall accuracy, positive and negative predictive values for detection of rifampicin resistance on TLA were 95.2%, 100%, 99.4%, 100% and 99.3% respectively. Using LJ-proportion method as the gold standard, 98.2% of rifampicin-resistant TB was detected on TLA.

Conclusion: TLA method may provide a viable alternative tool for early and accurate detection of TB drug-resistance, and consequent initiation of appropriate treatment for the disease control, particularly at the peripheral level of health services in limited-resource settings.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Fermentation of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) and Ripe Plantain Peels (Musa paradisiaca) in the Production of Animal Feed

Ojokoh Anthony Okhonlaye, Odesanya Oluwayemisi Foluke

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2016/30354

Aims: To study the effects of fermentation on the nutrient composition of cassava and ripe plantain peels.

Study Design: Raw cassava and ripe plantain peel blends were varied at different ratio (100:0, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 and 0:100) and fermented for 96 h.  

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology and Department of Animal Production and Health, Federal University of Akure, Ondo State between October 2015 and July 2016.

Methodology: Microbial analysis was carried out using potato dextrose agar, nutrient agar and De man Rogosa agar. pH and total titratable acidity analysis were carried out. Proximate and mineral composition of the blends was also carried out.

Results: A total number of fifteen (15) microorganisms were isolated during the fermentation of cassava-plantain blend; these comprise of four molds (Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolonifer), ten bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermetum, Pedicoccus acidilactic, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Micrcoccus luteus, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus cereus, Leuconostoc mescenteriodes and Staphylococcus aureus and a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae). The pH and TTA values of cassava and plantain peel blends varied as the fermentation day progresses. The proximate composition showed an increase in nutritive value of the fermented sample when compared with raw samples. There was significant increase in the mineral composition of the fermented samples when compared with the raw samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Antibodies in Sheep from Sokoto State

A. B. Shuaibu, B. R. Alkali, M. B. Abubakar, A. I. Daneji, S. A. Shuaibu, A. I. Bello, F. Abubaka, M. Bello

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2016/31378

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a cause for public health concern in many developing countries where sanitation conditions are poor. Sheep along with other species has been reported to be highly sero-positive for anti-HEV antibodies. Given the high infection rates and expanded HEV host range, increasing attention has been focused on the zoonotic nature of HEV and the close association of particular animal species with humans. This research was designed to determine the prevalence of HEV antibodies in Sheep from Sokoto Metropolis using Indirect Enzyme Linked immunosorbent assay. An overall prevalence of 31.82% (56/176) was recorded in the study. Female Sheep were found to be more exposed to Hepatitis E Virus than male Sheep with a prevalence of 39.6% and 21.3% respectively P-value<0.05. Sheep one year and older were more exposed to HEV infections than younger Sheep. P-value<0.05.It was concluded that sheep can be, and are, infected with HEV and may go about as natural reservoirs for HEV infection. Sero-prevalence may increase with age in sheep  as a result of repeated exposure. The breed has no outcome on the prevalence of HEV infection in sheep and goats while sex had no impact on HEV infection in Sheep. There is need to carry out a detailed molecular detection and characterization of the virus to determine the epidemiological pattern of distribution of the virus in the study area.


Open Access Review Article

A Short Review of Zika Virus

Fazlina Mustaffa, Nur Adilla Zaini

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2016/31151

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus which is spread mostly by the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito. In 2015, the outbreak of Zika virus in Brazil cause rapid spread of this virus throughout the Americas. A new report of relation between ZIKV infection and an epidemic of microcephaly among Brazilian neonates attracted universal attention. All the studies reviewed so far, however, suffer from the fact that, there is still no vaccine exist to prevent zika. Hence, important factor on preventing zika is by avoiding mosquitoes bite.