Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Effect of Newbouldia laevis Leaf Extract on Vancomycin and Methicillin Resistant Bacterial Isolates from Federal Medical Center, Owo

O. A. Fatunla, A. O. Ogundare, I. I. Achimugu, P. O. Akindele

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2016/31365

Antibacterial effect of Methanol extract of Newbouldia laevis {Tree of life} leaf on vancomycin and methicilin resistant bacteria isolates obtained from urine samples from Federal Medical Center, Owo was assayed. The leaves of N. laevis was collected from Ikole Ekiti and authenticated in the Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, Federal University of Technology, Akure. The bacterial isolated from the samples namely: E. coli, K. pnuemoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and    P. mirabilis were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests using disc diffusion method. Methanol extract of N. laevis was obtained using the cold extraction method. Phytochemical screening of the extract was assayed and inhibitory activity of the extract against the isolated bacteria was carried out using agar well diffusion technique. The concentration of 500 mg/ml was used and the zones of inhibition recorded. The isolates were resistant to vancomycin and methicilin. The extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, alkanoids, phenolics, saponin and cardiac glycosides. Antibacterial activity revealed that Methanol extract exhibited highest potency against                             K. pnuemoniae with 29.03±0.01f and the least activity against E. coli with 22.90±0.17a. This study has shown that, isolated bacteria were resistant to vancomycin and methicillin. The phytochemical investigation of N. laevis leaf extracts revealed the presence of constituents which could be the basis for their medicinal potency against methicillin and vancomycin resistant organisms.


Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Infection in Pregnant Women in Sokoto State, Nigeria

B. R. Alkali, M. Bello, M. Kabiru, A. B. Shu’aibu, B. I. A’isha, A. Firdausi, N. M. Bunza, O. F. Ashcroft

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2016/31395

The seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus infection among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic at specialist hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria was investigated. One hundred and eighty two (182) serum samples from pregnant women aged between 18-45 years were screened for the presence of anti-HEV specific IgG antibody using a commercially available ELISA kits obtained from EUROIMMUN Medical Laboratory Diagnostics AG. Information was obtained from the subjects using a well structured interviewer-administered Questionnaire. Data were entered into SPSS software version 20.0 and analyzed using Chi-square test. An overall prevalence of 18/182(9.9%) was obtained, while the age specific prevalence rates of 11.8%, 17.1%, 4.5%, and 6.2% among the age groups 18-23, 24-29, 30-35, and 36-41 years were recorded respectively. The prevalence rates of the infection at various gestational period of pregnancy were 14.9% and 5.4% at second and third trimester respectively. However, Chi-square test has shown that there was no statistically significant association between HEV infection with age and trimester of pregnancy. Education about environmental and personal hygiene before and during pregnancy may be useful for decreasing the rate of infection in this high risk population.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Seeds and Testas of Dacryodes edulis and Garcinia kola

R. U. B. Ebana, U. O. Edet, U. M. Ekanemesang, G. M. Ikon, J. F. Ekpenyong, N. W. Ntukidem, N. U. Brown

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2016/31173

The aim of this study was to evaluate the seeds and testas of Dacryodes eludis and Garcinia kola for antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal isolates in addition to their screening for phytochemicals and quantification. Phytochemical screening with aqueous and ethanolic extracts, crude quantification of phytochemicals and antimicrobial sensitivity assay were all carried using standard techniques. Resulting replicate readings were subjected to statistical analysis to test for significance. The results of the phytochemical screening indicates the presence alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, reducing compounds and polyphenols but not phlobatannins, anthraquinones and hydroxymethyl anthraquinones in the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the seeds and testas of Dacryodes eludis. However, in addition, phlobatannins was found in the testa and seeds of G. kola. Following quantification of the phytochemicals, the most abundant were polyphenol and tannins in the testa and seeds of D. eludis and G. kola, respectively. Analysis of variance showed significance (p < 0.05). The extracts showed varying levels of inhibition against the bacterial and fungal isolates. Consistently, the methanolic extract of G. kola seed gave the highest zones of inhibition against the bacterial isolates while its ethanolic extract also showed consistent antifungal activity. This is an urgent need for further studies aimed at further exploiting these phytochemicals.


Open Access Original Research Article

Carotenogenesis in Haloferax sp. Strain BKW301, a Halophilic Archaeon from Indian Solar Saltarns

Jhuma Biswas, Fatima Nasrin Haque, A. K. Paul

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2016/31559

Aims: In this study, attention has been focused on the production of carotenoid pigment by an extremely halophilic archaeon, Haloferax sp. BKW301 (NCBI Accession No. KT240044) isolated from multi-pond solar salterns of West Bengal, India.

Methodology: Nutritional and environmental factors influencing the growth associated carotenogenesis by the isolate have been optimized under batch cultivation. The identity of the pigment and its antioxidant activity has been determined by spectroscopic analysis and DPPH scavenging activity respectively.

Results: Growth associated production of carotenoid pigment by BKW301 has been optimized in MH medium under batch cultivation and maximum production of carotenoid pigment (1.59 mg/g) was achieved with 20% NaCl, 1% glucose, 0.5% peptone, 6% inoculum and at pH 8. Presence of light, a CVF ratio of 2.5:10, and continuous agitation at 120 rpm induced the pigment production significantly. The carotenoid pigment extracted from the cell mass showed distinct fingerprint absorption peaks at 469, 492, and 525 nm, and FTIR absorption spectra characteristic of bacterioruberin. Moreover, the purified bacterioruberin also showed high degree of DPPH scavenging activity.

Conclusion: Production of significant amount of bacterioruberin under optimized cultural conditions by Haloferax sp. BKW301 and its strong DPPH scavenging activity indicated the biotechnological potential of the haloarcheaon strain for mass production of bacterioruberin and effective utilization in pharmaceutical industry.


Open Access Original Research Article

Direct Repeats and Spacer Diversities as Found in Lactobacillus pentosus KCA1 CRISPR loci and Cas9 Structural Signature

Kingsley C. Anukam

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2016/31364

Aim: To provide an insight on Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) direct repeats and spacer organization present in Lactobacillus pentosus KCA1. Little or no information exist on CRISPR and CRISPR-associated (Cas) genes in Lactobacilli as a vista of new technique for potential genome editing.

Methodology: The genome sequence of Lactobacillus pentosus KCA1 was obtained from gene bank and bioinformatic tools such as CRISPR finder was used to analyze direct repeats and spacer diversities. CRISPR Target tool was used for spacer target prediction. The iterative threading assembly refinement (I-TASSER) algorithm was used for the prediction of the Cas9 3D structure, and the binding site by this integrated algorithm. CueMol2 version was used to visualize the binding sites.

Results: The genome of Lactobacillus pentosus KCA1 encodes six CRISPR arrays with direct repeat (DR) length consensus exhibiting repeat polymorphisms ending with adenine-guanine (AG) nucleotide except CRISPR1 that has mainstream DR length ending with adenine-cytosine (AC) and terminal repeats ending with adenine-thymine (AT). The domain of KCA1_Cas9 has 153 amino acid residues belonging to HNH Cas9-type, located between positions 786-938. KCA1_0112 Cas9 has one chain A architecture and three putative ligand binding sites residues located at 10 (Asp), 777 (Glu) and 992 (Asp) positions of the 4086 base pairs.

Conclusion: Spacer analysis revealed that L. pentosus KCA1 may have been exposed to several mobile genetic elements as the spacers matched sequences from bacteriophages and plasmids. Further studies are needed to explore the structural architecture of KCA1 Cas9 as a potential part of CRISPR genome editing functionality.