Open Access Short Research Article
Ogi also known as corn meal is a carbohydrate rich food that forms the diets of most weaning infants and adults in some West African countries including Nigeria. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus brevis and L. plantarum on the proximate composition of ogi. All analyses were carried out using standard techniques. Fresh ogi was prepared from corn via selection, washing, steeping for 2 to 3 days, wet milling and sieving. L. plantarum and L. brevis were then inoculated into the corn meal and incubated anaerobically for 24 hours at 37°C. Following inoculation, the proximate compositions of the control and Lactobacillus species inoculated samples were determined. On enrichment with L. brevis and L. plantarum, the protein, fat, ash, crude fibre, and moisture contents were significantly increased (p < 0.05) while carbohydrate was lowered after fermentation. The amounts of moisture were 65.73-68.30, ash 1.63-1.44, protein 12.24-14.30, fat 6.42-7.47, fibre 2.30-2.72 and 77.24-73.90 g/100g dry matter, respectively for L. brevis and L plantarum. The increase in protein is of great significance in weaning infant diets. Thus, there is a need to conduct further studies to assess the palatability of the enriched corn meal.
Open Access Original Research Article
The shelf life of table eggs from poultry farm, open market and supermarket stored in the refrigerator, open shelf and cupboard for 21days were determined using standard microbiological and weight reduction techniques. The changes in pH, weight loss and bacterial load of the eggs were monitored as quality indices. Out of 216 eggs collected, only 24 (11%) were observed to be microbiologically spoilt. The bacterial isolates and their frequencies of occurrence were Micrococcus sp. 1(10%), Sarcina sp. 2(20%), Bacillus sp. 3(30%), Streptococcus sp. 1(10%), Staphylococcus sp. 2(20%), Salmonella sp. 1(10%) within the internal surfaces and Micrococcus sp. 4(13.3%), Sarcina sp. 3(10%), Bacillus sp. 5(16.7%), Streptococcus sp. 3(10%), Staphylococcus sp. 8(26.7%), Salmonella sp. 2(6.7%), Flavobacterium sp. 1(3.3%), Corynebacterium sp. 2(6.7%), Proteus sp. 1(3.3%) and E. coli 1(3.3%) from the external surfaces respectively. Under the different storage conditions, the pH of the eggs were highly alkaline but progressively declined over the 21 days of storage. Similarly, there was a significant weight loss (p<0.05) over the storage period. Also, the microbial load on the external surface of the refrigerated eggs which was actually lower than those on the open shelf and cupboard differed significantly (p=0.05). From the correlation analysis, there existed a combined effect of pH and weight on the overall microbial load/quality of the eggs investigated. Eggs stored in the refrigerator over time generally recorded lower bacterial count and relatively no significant changes in weight loss and pH values. There was a positive correlation between the bacterial load and the storage time in all the samples. Refrigeration was therefore recommended as the best storage condition for eggs in order to increase their shelf life.
Open Access Original Research Article
Antibiotics are used in poultry farms to enhance growth, feed efficiency and reduce diseases. However, their irrational and non-moderate using can cause serious problems for the consumer and the manufacturer. The aim of this study is to estimate antibiotics residues in poultry (chicken and turkey) tissues collected from broiler farms in Meknès - Morocco.
For this purpose, 120 poultry meat samples (muscle, liver, gizzard and eggs samples) were taken from various farms and tested by conventional microbiological methods (four plates) recommended and approved by French Agency of Food Safety (AFSSA). For muscle samples suspected positive to antibiotic residues at screening, quantitative evaluation for determination of these molecules was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-MS) (Delepine and Hurtaud-Pessel, 2002). The results revealed that 36.15% of poultry meat samples from intensive livestock were positive to antibiotic residues. As for samples from traditional livestock, all samples were negative. The concentrations of tetracycline in these samples does not exceed the maximum residue limits of both FAO and WHO, which is 100 µg / Kg. Indeed, the levels obtained vary between 37 and 74 µg / kg.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: To verify the possibility of isolating virulent microorganisms from books and indoor air in University of Ibadan libraries and to investigation the virulent characteristics and antibiotics sensitivities of these microorganisms and their public health significance.
Study Design: The study made use of a purposive sampling method.
Place and Duration: Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan between August, 2014 and February, 2015.
Methodology: Forty swab samples from books and 20 indoor air samples were collected and analyzed. The settle plate method was used to collect the air sample while book surfaces were swabbed using sterile swabs.
Results: The mean bacterial count in the indoor ranged from 0.23 x 103± 0.065 Colony Forming Unit/m3 to 1.99 x 103 ± 0.655 Colony Forming Unit (cfu)/m3 while that of swab samples ranged from 5.83 x 104 ± 0.0247 cfu/ml to 1.32 x 104 ± 0.0283 cfu/ml. Some of the bacteria isolated were: Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. arlattae, S. chonii, S. haemolyticus S. muscae, Proteus mirabilis, Micrococcus luteus, M. carouselicus, Yersinia enterolitica, Erwinia mallotivora, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcenscens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Providencia sp. Exactly 62.5% of the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, 52.5% were susceptible to Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The isolates were mostly resistant to Tetracycline (75%). Virulence test results showed that most isolates were positive to DNase (83.3%) and Haemolysin (75%) tests, while 50% positive to Lecithinase test. Only 16.7% of the isolates were positive to coagulase test. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus haemolyticus were isolates that survived the acid liability test.
Conclusion: Bacteria of public health concern were isolated and the ability of any of them to show multiple antibiotic resistances, survive at low pH, produces three or more virulent factors was considered a possibility of pathogenicity of that organism.
Open Access Review Article
Aims: Research study on physicochemical analysis and microbiological assessment of tannery effluent discharged from tanneries around Nigeria’s Kano industrial estate was carried out.
Duration of Study: The study was conducted between September 2015 and December 2016.
Methodology: A total of 10 effluent samples were aseptically collected and analyzed by standard methods. Physicochemical parameters were analyzed. The bacteriological quality of the tannery effluents was analyzed by total aerobic mesophilic count and total coliform count techniques. The isolated bacteria were microscopically and biochemically characterized.
Results: The pH of the analyzed effluents ranged between 6.80 and 7.50 at the temperature range of 25°C to 38°C. The sulphide content ranged between 0.30 mg/l to 0.37 mg/l, with ammonium content ranging from 0.40 mg/l to 0.48 mg/l. The chromium content ranged between 30 mg/l to 83 mg/l. The potassium content ranged between 0.07 mg/l to 0.40 mg/l, with magnesium ranging from 0.40 mg/l to 6.35 mg/l. Phosphorus content ranged from 4.00 mg/l to 4.50 mg/l. The total aerobic mesophilic counts and total coliform counts recorded the presence of Bacillus sp. Pseudomonas sp., Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp. and Streptococcus faecalis. The total aerobic counts ranged from 4.40 × 104 to 2.73 × 105 cfu/ml. Samples B, C and G were found to be within the standard given by Federal Environmental Protection Agency. The total coliform counts ranged from 1.46 × 105 to 1.26 × 106 cfu/ml, with highest coliform counts of 1.26 × 106 cfu/ml in sample A, which is relatively higher than the permissible value of the World Health Organization guideline limit for faecal coliform bacteria.
Conclusion: The physicochemical parameters analyzed showed varying conformity and divergence to the standards set by the national and international environmental regulatory bodies. The study showed that contaminants were within statutory limits, with few samples recording hazardous potentials. The effluents could pose little or no environmental risk when let into open waters, but presence of Escherichia coli in the effluent shows the possibility that there may be an outbreak of waterborne diseases soon within the study area.