Open Access Original Research Article

Bio Diversiity and Cultivation Parameters, Mycochemical Analysis of Wild Mushrooms Collected from Western Ghats of Tamilnadu, India

M. Subbulakshmi, M. Kannan, S. Venketesan

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/30917

Western ghats of Tamilnadu contains varieties of wild mushrooms. Macroscopic fungi were collected from Western Ghats of Tirunelveli District, especially Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve & Range in Tamilnadu to document their distribution and diversity. Gilled mushroom are short lived, abundant soon after the monsoon where as the Polyporus species could be collected for a prolonged periods. The present survey includes 45 species from different habitats. Maximum number of species were belong to the family Polyporaceae followed by Ganodermataceae. The most common genera are Polyporus. This is the preliminary survey of collection and identification of macroscopic fungi as this has not been done in this part of Western ghats. This study also envisages further study on the predominant three mushrooms Calocybe indica, Laetiporous sulphureus, Gleophyllum sepiarium were collected. Then Cultivation parameters, ptimization, separation, characterization and estimation of mycochemicals by TLC and GCMS studies were analysed for selected mushrooms.


Open Access Original Research Article

Types of Bacteria Associated with Diarrhoeal Cases among Children in Akure, Nigeria and Their Antibiogram Profile

Q. C. Okebugwu, T. T. Adebolu, B. A. Ojo

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/31469

In this study, the types of bacteria associated with diarrhoeal cases among children in Akure, Nigeria and their antibiogram profile were investigated using standard techniques. The bacterial species isolated are; Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pnuemoniae, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, and Vibrio paraheamolyticus. Antibiogram profile of the isolates revealed Pefloxacin to be the most effective drug against four of the isolated bacterial species while septrin, streptomycin, augmentin and spafloxacin were less effective. Three types of multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were observed in the isolates. Shigella sonnei showed multiple resistance patterns to seven antibiotics (septrin, chloramphenicol, spafloxacin, amoxicillin, augmentin, gentamycin and ofloxacin) which belongs to five antibiotic groups (sulfonamides, phenicols, fluroquinolones, aminoglycosides and penicillins), Salmonella Typhimurium showed multiple resistance patterns to four antibiotics (septrin, chloramphenicol, amoxicillin, augmentin) which belongs to three groups of antibiotics namely; sulfonamides, phenicols and penicillins while Enterobacter aerogenes showed multiple resistance patterns to all the 10 antibiotics (Septrin, chloramphenicol, Spafloxacin, amoxicillin, augmentin, gentamycin, streptomycin, perfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin) which belongs to five groups of antibiotics which are sulfonamides, phenicols, fluroquinolones, aminoglycosides and penicillins. Conclusively, the use of the antibiotics to which these organisms are resistant should be discouraged.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Assessment of Antibacterial Activity of Chromolaena odorata Leaf Extracts against Selected Clinical Bacterial Isolates

J. O. Oko, J. A. Audu, F. S. Ojeleye, Q. Okeh, S. P. E. Jakheng, K. J. Shittu, A. K. Amos, I. S. Yusuf, C. Joshua, D. Dazarami

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/32158

Aim: This research is aimed to compare the antibacterial activities of Chromolaena odorata leaf extracts and some commonly used antibiotics against selected clinical bacterial isolates.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the microbiology laboratory of the Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria between June and September, 2016.

Methods: The plant extracts were obtained using the cold extraction method and were concentrated by heating in water bath at 90°C for 48 hours. The identities of bacterial isolates collected were confirmed by standard biochemical methods. The plant extracts and bacterial isolates were stored at 4°C until required for use. The susceptibility of the bacteria to extracts was tested using the agar well diffusion method while the modified Kirby Baur agar discs diffusion method was used for the antibiotics susceptibility test. The antibiotics activity was subjected to MAR index analysis and the results noted.

Results: The results of this study showed that water had significantly higher percentage yield (13.21%) compared to the other extraction solvent (ethanol) with the yield of 10.45%. The results of our study indicated that the ethanolic extract was more effective in comparison with the aqueous extract. Although at 125 mg/mL, the both extracts were able to inhibit the growth of majority of bacteria tested. The antibiotic susceptibility profile analysis indicated that Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa had high level resistance to some of the tested antibiotics whereas Bacillus subtilis was resistant to only one of the tested antibiotics. Streptomycin was most active whereas Ofloxacin was less active. All the bacteria except Bacillus subtilis had MAR index of ≥ 0.2. Bacillus subtilis had 0.1.

Conclusion: The findings of this study show that Chromolaena odorata leaf extracts possess a good antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria. It is clear from this study that most of the pathogens were resistant to the tested antibiotics but susceptible to the plant extracts although at high MIC and MBC.


Open Access Original Research Article

Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Analysis of Olive Oil Degraded by Pseudomonas fluorescens

B. M. Popoola, A. A.Onilude, T. Olateru Comfort, T. Olateru Comfort

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/31239

Fatty acids are the major components of lipids; and the physical, chemical and physiological properties of a lipid class depend primarily on its fatty acid composition. Gas chromatography method can be used for the identification of microbiological degraded fatty acids in vegetable oils as methyl ester.

In this work, olive oil degraded by lipase of Pseudomonas fluorescens grown in two different Mineral Salt Medium, was studied over 25 days. Olive oil was analyzed for fatty acids commonly present in olive oils which are Myristic, Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, Linoleic, Linolenic, Behenic and Lignoceric, which have specific carbon number and their values in approximate percentage are C14:0 (0.4), C16:0 (14.0), C18:0 (5.5), C18:1 (76.4), C18:2 (3.4), C18:3 (0.1), C22:0 (0.1) and C24:0 (0.1) respectively. Oleic acid percentage is high in olive oil which contained considerable amount of 76.4%.

The reduction of fatty acid by Pseudomonas fluorescens after 20 days was 8.2% in the media used. Lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens had potential for degradation of fatty waste. It could therefore be employed in environmental cleanup of oil spill site.


Open Access Original Research Article

Extraction and Characterization of Staphylococcins from S. aureus Isolated from Selected Environments within Akure Metropolis and Evaluation of Their Antibacterial Activity

T. A. Olukitibi, T. T. Adebolu

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/31477

Staphylococcins are bacteriocins produced by Staphylococcus aureus and it has been proven that they have antibacterial potential. The purpose of this study was to compare the staphylococcin producing potential of S. aureus isolated from different environments and the antibacterial potential of the staphylococcins extracted. Using standard microbiological techniques S. aureus was isolated from different environments. The isolated S. aureus from the selected environments were screened for antibacterial potentials against the bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus sp, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae) isolated from wound samples using agar well diffusion assay. The staphylococcins extracted were partially purified and molecularly characterized using Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The partially purified staphylococcins (PPS) were then screened for growth inhibitory activity against the isolated bacterial species from different wound samples while the effects of temperature and pH on the antibacterial activity of PPSs were also assessed using standard methods. Partially Purified Staphylococcin (PPSs) extracted from S. aureus isolated from leg wound (SALW), S. aureus from human stool (SAHS) and S. aureus isolated from cow dung (SACD) however displayed better inhibitory activity on most of the multi antibiotic resistant isolated bacteria with SALW. The inhibitory activities of the extracted staphylococcins were maximal at neutral pH and temperature of 27±2ºC while their potency reduced at extreme pH and increased temperatures. The molecular weight of the extracted staphylococcins ranged from 21kDa to 83kDa. From this study, the antibacterial activity of the extracted staphylococcins from S. aureus on bacteria isolated from wounds varied based on the environment from which the S. aureus was isolated. Staphylococcins SALW, SAHS and SACD were observed to show higher antibacterial activity than that of the antibiotics used on most of the bacteria isolates. Therefore, in sourcing for alternative therapy, SALW, SAHS and SACD should be exploited for the treatment of wound infections.