Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Fermentation and Extrusion on the Microbiological Composition of Millet and Defatted Soybean Blends

J. U. Obaroakpo, I. Iwanegbe, A. O. Ojokoh

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/30966

Aims: To evaluate the effect of fermentation and extrusion on the microbiological properties of Millet and defatted soybean blends and to determine the storage stability of the plant product.

Methodology: Flour blends were prepared from millet and defatted soybean and at different proportions (100, 90:10, 80:20, and 70:30). A portion of the blends was extruded, and the other portion was preconditioned (using solid state fermentation method) and then extruded in a laboratory single screw extruder.

Results: The pH of the raw flour blends during fermentation, recorded a decrease from a range of 9.2-9.3 at day 1 (0 hour) to a range of 6.6 - 6.8 at day 4 (72 hours). Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtillis, Enterococcus sp., Micrococcus sp. and Lactobacillus sp were isolated during fermentation. Also in the fermenting flour were some microorganisms which may not have played any part in the fermentation process such as Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp., and coliforms (Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp.). The microbiological load as measured by the total plate count per gram of the extrudates was generally low in all the extrudates stored at room temperature (35+2°C). The total plate count at room temperature steadily increased (0-20 days). The total plate count of the extrudates at day 0 showed an initial total plate count of 2.06×104-2.72×104CFU/g in the extruded (E) blends and 1.48×104-3.68×104CFU/g in the fermented-extruded (FE) blends. Highest count was observed in both extrudates in E3 and FE3 with 2.72×104CFU/g and 3.68×104CFU/g respectively.

Conclusion: The extrudates were stable under the storage condition investigated in this study.


Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Purification of an Antifungal Protein from Kiwi Fruits and Demonstration of Its Antifungal Activity

Abhishek Walia, Neerja Rana, Vishal Rana

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/32671

A single polypeptide low molecular weight 25 KDa thaumatin-like antifungal protein was purified from Hayward variety of kiwifruits. It was purified to apparent homogeneity involving saline extraction, (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100, respectively. In present work, simple chromatography procedure was described for purifying antifungal activity form the pulp of Hayward kiwifruit. It furnishes evidence of existence of antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum (83.72%) and Rhizoctonia solani (33.78%) and did not show any inhibitory effect against Dematophora necatrix. The proteins have low molecular weight and would be potential importance for increasing disease resistance in plants through genetic engineering and can be used as bio control for controlling fungal diseases in plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Characteristics of White Cheese (Gibna bayda) Manufactured under Traditional Conditions

Mohamed Osman Mohamed Abdalla, Husna Eisa Ahmed Omer

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/33152

Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the quality control of white cheese (Gibna bayda) processing in traditional plants. White cheese was manufactured using raw cow milk from two areas in North Kordofan (Riash and Cazgail).

Methodology: Samples were collected from four stages of cheese manufacture (raw milk, curd before and after pressing, cheese delivered to the market). Samples were collected in sterile plastic bags stored at 4°C in ice box and transported to the laboratory of Kordofan University for analysis. Raw milk and cheese were microbiologically (total viable bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, coliform bacteria, lactobacilli bacteria, yeasts and moulds) evaluated during processing stages. 

Results: the results showed that all microorganisms tested were not significantly affected by the area in which cheese was manufactured. During the processing stages, coliform bacteria count was significantly (P<0.001) higher in curd before and after pressing (log 7.31 cfu/gm and log 7.30 cfu/gm respectively) compared to cheese delivered to the market. Yeasts and moulds count                  was significantly (P<0.05) higher in curd after pressing (log 4.08 cfu/gm). Total viable bacteria,               S. aureus and lactobacilli counts were not significantly affected by the stage of cheese processing.

Conclusion: The microbiological count of raw milk was high except yeasts and moulds, and the quality of cheese deteriorated after curd pressing then slightly improved in cheese delivered to the market.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fermentation on the Proximate Composition of Ripe and Unripe Plantain Flour

Ojokoh Eromosele, A. O. Ojokoh, O. Adewale Ekundayo, Linda Ezem, A. Anyiam Chukwudum

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/31303

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of fermentation when ripe and unripe plantain flour was fermented for 72 hours at room temperature (32°C+2°C).

Methodology: The effect of fermentation on the flours was accessed by determining the microbiological quality, proximate composition as well as the anti-nutritional content. Mixed flora of bacteria and fungi were isolated. Different species of fungi (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp, Rhizopus spp and Fusarium spp) and bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp, Lactobacillus spp, Leuconostoc spp, Bacillus substilis, Bacillus cereus) were identified.

Results: The result of the proximate analysis showed that there was an increase in the crude fibre, protein and carbohydrate contents of both ripe and unripe fermented samples. The contents of protein, crude fibre and carbohydrate of the fermented ripe plantain flour increased from 0.86 +0.03 to 2.91+0.04, from 1.68+0.03 to 2.81+0.11 and from 79.25+0.01 to 85.43+ 0.01 while that of the unripe fermented plantain increased from 1.75+0.03 to 2.86+0.12, from 1.10+0.07 to 1.61+0.05 and from 79.78+0.01 to 88.28+0.08 respectively. Anti-nutrients properties such as tannin, alkaloids, glycosides and flavonoids of the fermented samples decreased.

Conclusion:  This research work has proven that fermentation increases the nutritional value of food and helps to reduce the anti-nutrient content of food samples that can be hazardous to health.


Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological and Physicochemical Characteristics of Raw Milk of Animals Grazed Around Sugar Cane Plants in Sudan

Mohamed Osman Mohamed Abdalla

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/33151

Aims: This study was conducted to study the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of milk from animals grazed around sugar cane plants in Sudan.

Methodology: A total of 94 samples of milk were collected from area grazed by animals around sugar cane plants as follows: 20 samples from Guneid, 22 samples from Sinnar, 20 samples from Assalaya, 15 samples from Kenana and 17 samples from New Halfa. According to the species of the animals: 14 samples from sheep, 29 samples from goat and the rest of samples (51) from cows.  The milk samples were subjected to physicochemical (fat, protein, total solids, solids-non-fat, lactose, density) and microbiological [total viable bacteria count (TVBC) and lactic acid bacteria count] characteristics were determined. 

Results: The results showed that physicochemical and microbiological characteristics were significantly (P<0.001) affected by the plant from which samples were collected. The fat (7.44%), protein (3.96%), total solids (17.38%) and solids-non-fat (9.94%) contents were high in milk collected from Assalaya plant, while lactose content (5.17%) and density (0.0339) were high in milk from Guneid plant. TVBC and lactic acid bacteria count (Log 11.78 and Log 8.88 cfu/ml, respectively) were high in milk from Kenana plant. The fat (7.02%), protein (3.88%), total solids (16.82%) and solids-non-fat (9.80%) contents were significantly higher in sheep milk, while TVBC (Log 9.31 cfu/ml) and lactic acid bacteria count (Log 6.49 cfu/ml) counts were significantly higher in goat milk, and the lactose content and density were not significantly affected by the species of the animal.

Conclusion: The physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of milk were affected by the plant from around which samples were collected, while the species of the animal affected all physicochemical and microbiological characteristics except lactose and density of milk.