Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Anti-Bacterial Activity of Extracts of Euphorbia abyssinica (Desert Candle) Stem-Bark and Latex

Jacqueline Ebob Tarh, Christian Ukwuoma Iroegbu

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/32277

Aim: This study was aimed at evaluating Euphorbia abyssinica (Desert Candle), a medicinal plant extensively used in folklore medicine among the Kendem people of South-west Cameroon for antibacterial activity and extracts analyzed for phytochemical composition.

Study Design: The completely randomized block design was used and data analyzed using of two way analysis of variance. Significant means were separated using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria, between April 2011 and August 2012.

Methodology: Extraction was done using absolute methanol, 50% methanol (in water) and water as solvents. Qualitative analysis methods were used to assay the phytochemical constituents. Agar-well diffusion, macro broth dilution and agar dilution and time-kill assay were the susceptibility test methods adapted.

Results: The phytochemical constituents detected were alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrates and steroids, and saponins. The 50% methanol extract of the stem-bark was highly active against Staphyloccocus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and compared favorably with the Gentamycin control drug. The inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) obtained with 50% methanol extract measured 23 mm for S. aureus and 19 mm for P. aeruginosa compared to 18 mm achieved with the absolute methanol extract for both              S. aureus and P. aeniginosa. For the aqueous extract the overall IZD range of 10±1.60-13±2.16 mm. The susceptibility patterns obtained using both dilutions (agar and macro-broth) methods were similar to that obtained with the agar diffusion method above. S. aureus (with MIC, 10.93±1.00-; MBC, 25-mg/mL, agar dilution or MIC, 3.9±1.60 -, MBC, 12.5-mg/mL, macro broth dilution methods, respectively). It was considered to be the most significantly susceptible bacteria strain tested (significant mean value 3.933), while E. coli was the least susceptible (with MIC, 50±0.00-, MBC, 100-mg/mL, in the agar dilution; MIC, 25±0.00-, MBC, 50-mg/mL in the broth dilution and a significant mean value of 14.70).  The stem-bark extracts was also significantly more active than the latex extracts P= .05 with significant mean values of 13.48 and 19.53 respectively. In the time-kill assay, all (100%) the organisms tested were killed by 50% methanol extract of E. abyssinica at concentrations equivalent to 1MIC- 4MIC.

Conclusion: E. abyssinica extracts showed considerable antibacterial activity against the bacterial species tested. These findings authenticate the folklore use of Euphorbia abyssinica for broad spectrum treatment of bacterial infections. 


Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Antibiogram of Bacteria Isolated from Processed and Unprocessed Cow-Skin (Ponmo) in Ogbese Market

T. A. Olukitibi, F. C. Adetuyi, B. S. Adeleke, S. C. Abe

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/32949

The use of ponmo as major meat source to average Nigerians if processed under unhygienic condition might result in disease outbreak. Inadequate and under-utilization of food nutrients needed by human for normal body functions has resulted in malnutrition and outbreak of diseases. Fifty samples of cowhides comprising forty processed (ponmo) and ten unprocessed were sourced from Ogbese Market, Ondo State, Nigeria. The microbial analyses were carried out using serial dilution and pour plate methods. The 0.1ml of the diluents was aseptically plated on molten nutrient agar and incubated temperature. Pure cultures were obtained by repeated streaking on the appropriate microbiological media. Antibiotics sensitivity pattern on the bacterial isolates were carried out using commercial antibiotics. The highest microbial load from unprocessed Ponmo with fur was 3.5 x105 while the processed Ponmo was 1.5 x 105cfu/ml. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mitis, Salmonella typhimorium, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Shigella dysenteriae and Micrococcus leteus were isolated. Ciprofloxacin showed inhibitory potency on the entire isolates with Staphylococcus aureus showing high resistance to most of the antibiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Quality Assessment of Bottled Water Brands Marketed in Kitale Town, Trans- Nzoia County, Kenya

Ibrahim Y. Adaro, Ndukui G. James, Perpetual Ndung’u

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/32957

Background: Consumption of bottled water is increasing rapidly in developing countries as it is generally perceived to be pure, clean and of good quality. This has led to the sale of different brands of bottled water in several markets including Kitale town.

Aim of the Study: This study was conducted to assess the bacteriological quality of bottled water brands consumed in Kitale town.

Study Design: It was a cross-sectional study design which involved getting a snap shot situation of the prevailing bacteriological standards of bottled water sold in the Kitale town area.

Place and Duration of the Study: The current study was conducted in Kitale town area among outlets of bottled water brands.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the bacteriological quality of bottled water brands consumed in Kitale town. A total of 60 samples of bottled water from 20 different brands were randomly selected from several markets and analyzed for bacteriological contamination using multiple tube fermentation method to detect the presence of Escherichia coli coliform   per 100 ml.

Results: From this study, only 90% of the bottled water brands representing the products of 18 companies had counts within the acceptable limits. Escherichia coli coliforms present in 100 ml of water were detected in two of the bottled water brands constituting 10% (6/60) of the samples. The presence of coliform bacteria in drinking water suggests the possible presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms thus unsafe for drinking. The data presented here clearly raise the concerns regarding the quality of bottled water and highlights the danger posed to the public health.

Conclusion: The results from this study indicate a possibility that not all the bottled water sold in Kitale town is of good quality as perceived by the buyers. Therefore, any contamination may pose a unique hazard because of the widespread distribution of the bottled water. There is also need for continuous bacteriological screening, good manufacturing and sanitation practices that must be employed by the manufacturing companies of bottled water.


Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological and Physicochemical Characteristics of Plain Set Yoghurt Manufactured by Traditional Plants in Khartoum State, Sudan

Mohamed Osman Mohamed Abdalla, Wafa Ahmed Goumaa Humida

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/33369

Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of plain yoghurt manufactured by traditional plants in Khartoum State. 

Methodology: Fifty samples of plain set yoghurt were collected from traditional plants in Khartoum State (Khartoum, Omdurman and Khartoum North towns) at day 1 of manufacture in sterile plastic containers and transported in ice box (4ºC) to the laboratory for microbiological and physicochemical examination.

Results: The results showed that the area of sampling significantly affected the microbiological quality of yoghurt except Staphylococcus aureus. Samples from Khartoum had high count of total viable bacteria (TVB), coliform bacteria, lactobacilli and yeasts and moulds counts (Log 10 9.76±0.129, Log10 5.95±0.0166, Log 10 4.92±1.284 and Log 10 4.87±0.067 cfu/g, respectively). TVB and coliform bacteria counts were high in samples from plant B (Log 10 9.83±0.117 and Log 10 6.02±0.207 cfu/g, respectively), while S. aureus count was high in samples from plant E (Log 10 4.29±0.039) and lactobacilli and yeasts and moulds counts were high in samples from plant D (Log 10 5.25±1.777 and Log 10 4.89±0.046 cfu/g respectively). Fat, total solids (TS) and ash contents were high in samples from Omdurman (4.00%±0.946, 12.29%±1.351 and 0.76%±0.039, respectively), while protein content was high in samples from Khartoum (3.63%±0.371) and pH was high in samples from Khartoum North (5.50±0.397). Fat, TS and ash content were high in samples from plant E (4.82%±0.451, 13.48%±0.473 and 0.77%±0.030, respectively), while protein content was high in samples from plant B (3.80±0.251) and pH was high in samples from plant C (5.49±0.397). 

Conclusion: Yoghurt from traditional plants was contaminated with microorganisms that may causes diseases to human, so legislations should be adopted to prohibit such plants.


Open Access Original Research Article

Cultural, Morphological and Pathogenic Variability among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli Causing Wilt in French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

P. K. Maina, P. M. Wachira, S. A. Okoth, J. W. Kimenju

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/32684

Aim: This study aimed at evaluating cultural, morphological and pathogenic variability among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli strains isolated from French beans.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Methodology: The French beans showing Fusarium wilt symptoms were obtained from different fields in Kabaa irrigation scheme in Machakos County, Kenya. The diseased plants were washed and cut into 5 mm pieces which were surface sterilized before plating on Fusarium-selective medium. They were incubated for 10 days at 25-26°C. The developing colonies were transferred on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Carnation Leaf Agar (CLA) and Spezieller Nahrstoffarmer Agar (SNA) media for cultural and morphological characterization. Pathogenicity was assessed using on French bean ‘Amy’ variety.

Results: From 84 Fusarium isolates obtained, 18 were confirmed to be F. oxysporum from which 8 were confirmed to be F. oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (Fop). Variations existed cultural and morphological variations among the 8 isolates. Isolates showed luxuriant, moderately luxuriant and scanty aerial mycelial growth. Mycelial texture was either fluffy or fibrous. Isolate Fop8 had the highest growth at 85 mm at 7th day followed by Fop3 (84 mm) and Fop6 (84 mm) while Fop7 had the least growth at 71 mm. The colony colour was purple, pink or white. Microconidia sizes ranged from 8 X 3.0 to 10 X 3.4 µm while macroconidia ranged from 28 X 3.8 to 42 X 4.2 µm. Macroconidia had 3 septa. The microconidia were abundant and aseptate. Chlamydospore formation was terminal and intercalary, occurring in singles and in pairs. Although all the 8 isolates were pathogenic on ‘Amy’ French bean variety, their pathogenic potential was significantly different (P< 0.01). The most pathogenic isolate was Fop03, followed by Fop06 and Fop07 at means of 97.0, 92.4 and 92.0%, respectively. The least pathogenic isolate was Fop05 with a mean of 65.9% pathogenicity.

Conclusion: The isolates in this study are culturally and morphologically varied and have high pathogenicity on French bean.