Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Some Medicinal Plants on Different Bacterial Isolates Associated with Semen of Infertile Men

Mohamed M. S. Farag, Mamdouh S. El-Gamal, Aziza M. A. Mansour, Essam H. Abd El-Shakour, Mohammed H. EL-Haw, Alaa M. Soliman

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/33383

Infection of the male genitourinary tract represents a significant health care problem and account for almost 15% of cases of male infertility. The present study aims to isolate and identified different bacterial isolates collected from semen samples of infertile men attending to infertility clinic and evaluation of the effects of bacteriospermia on semen quality. Five medicinal plants extracts were used as an alternative therapeutic agent targeting these isolates. Seventy seven infertile men were evaluated by standard bacterial culture methods. Among total cases, 22 cases (28.6%) showed at least one pathogen: 10 (45.5%) Escherichia coli, 9 (40.9%) Staphylococcus aureus, and 3 (13.6%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results showed that samples infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa recorded the highest ratio of abnormalities (96.5%). On the other hand samples infected with Escherichia coli recorded the second highest ratio of abnormalities (93.75%), while the samples infected by Staphylococcus aureus showed the least ratio of abnormalities (92.88%). From these five medicinal plants that extracted by ethanol-methanol and/or chloroform-metahnol methods, the most potent plants extracts against bacterial isolates were detected for both Syzygium aromaticum (Clove) and Thymus vulgaris (Thyme). In conclusion, the present study showed that the microbiological investigation should be performed, as a routine test, to all infertile men attending to infertility clinics. Flavonoids of the selected plants have a good antioxidant and antibacterial activity, and can be used for medicinal and therapeutic applications.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Solid Substrate Fermentation of African Bush Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds

Kehinde Tope Adegbehingbe, Bartholomew Saanu Adeleke, Soji Fakoya

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/33191

Aim: This study investigated the effect of fermentation on nutrient and antinutrient contents of African bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis).

Methodology: Bush mango seeds were fermented for a period of five days. Microbiological contents, temperature, pH and total titratable acidity were monitored on daily basis while the proximate composition, mineral contents and the antinutrient contents of the unfermented and the fermented samples were determined.

Results: The bacteria isolated from seeds include Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus polymyxa, Lactobacillus fermentum, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus while the fungal isolates were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium poae, Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium chrysogenum. Both bacterial and fungal counts increased throughout the fermentation period while temperature increased from 27.5°C to 30°C on the third day but decreased to 29.7°C at the end of the fermentation. The moisture, crude protein and the ash contents increased while crude fat, crude fibre and the carbohydrate contents reduced in the fermented seeds. Protein content increased from 8.48% to 10.39%. Potassium and iron contents of the samples were found to reduce while phosphorus, manganese and sodium increased after the fermentation process. All the antinutrient contents that were determined reduced significantly after the fermentation process.

Conclusion: Fermented bush mango seeds can be used to produce nutritious condiments if properly processed.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Different Concentrations of Crude Aqueous Extract of Artemisia annua on Soil Microbes

V. F. Ediene, O. B. Iren, M. G. Solomon

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/33426

Artemisia annua (L) is known to inhibit the growth of seedlings leading us to hypothesize that it may also adversely affect soil microbial community. The effect of crude, aqueous leaf extracts of A. annua on soil microorganisms was therefore studied at (w/v) 0 (control), 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 percent (%) concentrations. The frequency of occurrence of bacterial isolates across treatments varied in the order Agromyces spp < Klebsiella spp < Micrococcus spp < Bacillus spp < Athrobacter spp < Pseudomonas spp. After 12 weeks of treatment application, the bacterial mean counts (cfu/g) were 173 x 105 for the control, 57.5 x 105 for the 1.0 %, 52.16 x 105 for the 2.5 %, 47.8 x 105 for the 5 %, and 44.3 x 105 for the 7.50 % crude extract concentrations; the fungal mean counts were 6.78 x 104, 30.5 x 104, 34.3 x 104, 35 x 104 and 39.5 x 104 cfu/g respectively. The fungal population varied in the order Aspergillus spp > Penicillium spp > Rhizopus spp > Corynespora Spp > Mucor spp > Microsporum spp > Fusarium spp. Thus, the extracts of Artemisia annua significantly reduced the bacterial population but increased the fungal population.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Lactic Acid Bacteria Profile of Fermenting Cucumber in 7% Brine Solution

J. G. Egbe, J. A. Lennox, P. Rao, Anitha, G. E. Umoafia

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/33457

Fermentation was used since ancient times as an easy method of vegetables’ preservation, which also maintains and/or improves the nutritional and sensory properties of vegetables. The aim of this study was to isolate, characterized and identify the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in spontaneous fermentation of Cucumber. Cucumber samples were purchased from a vegetable stand in Watt market, Cross River State, Nigeria. They were fermented spontaneously for 7 days in 7% brine solution and samples were taken at 24 h intervals for LAB analysis. Thirty bacterial strains were isolated from different phases of the fermentation of cucumber and were characterized by the API 50 CHL System of identification. Three lactic acid bacteria species were identified and included Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Lactobacillus pentosus. After 24 h fermentation, Leuconostoc mesenteroides was isolated as the dominant LAB specie of the fermentation period. This trend continued until the fourth day where Lactobacillus plantarum became the dominant LAB isolate in the fermenting cucumber. As the fermentation proceeded, Lactobacillus pentosus, was then involved. The results also revealed a decrease in the occurrence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides as the fermentation period increases. The present research thus shows the presence of LAB at different phases of fermenting cucumber. Therefore, the above mentioned isolates could be used as starter cultures for the commercial fermentation of vegetables.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Induction and Expression of Chitinases from Four Sub Species of Bacillus thuringiensis

P. W. H. K. P. Daulagala

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/34084

Chitin is a naturally occurring linear polymer of N-acetylglucosamine and the major structural component of fungal cell walls and exoskeletons of insects and arthropods. Chitinases are the enzymes that breakdown chitin to economically important derivatives and found in a range of organisms including bacteria, insects, crustaceans, invertebrates, some vertebrates and higher plants. In the present study, four Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates were grown in media supplemented with 0.1% (w/v) regenerated chitin and chitinase inducing medium and  screened for chitinolytic activity. All isolates showed notable extracellular chitinase activity with very low levels in cell bound fractions. When the isolates were screened with fluorogenic substrates, Bt HD133, Bt T7002 and Bt IPS78 showed a similar pattern of distribution with the highest production from Bt IPS 78. The lowest activity was detected from the isolate Bt 36-3. Similar to the results obtained with fluorogenic substrates, Bt 36-3 and Bt IPS 78 expressed the lowest and the highest activities with the substrate Carboxymethyl-Chitin Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R (CM-chitin RBV 5R) respectively. When the culture supernatants of isolates grown in nutrient broth supplemented with regenerated chitin were electrophoresed on activity gels, one chitinase band of approximate molecular mass of 36 kDa was obtained from all four sub species. Future experiments can be carried out to find out whether these chitinases have any insecticidal activity aiming, to develop environmental-friendly biopesticides, and in vivo antifungal activities to test against plant pathogenic fungi in growth chambers and under glasshouse condition.