Open Access Short Research Article

Prevalence of HBsAg and HBV Serotypes Using Antigen Detection and PCR Methods among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients Accessing Healthcare in a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in Central Nigeria

Ajegena S. Abimiku, Oti B. Victor, Pennap R. Grace, Richard Moses

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/34285

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus is a major public health problem especially in developing countries. In a descriptive study, the prevalence of HBsAg and HBV serotypes using antigen detection and PCR methods were evaluated among HIV patients accessing healthcare in a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in Central Nigeria. After ethical clearance, blood samples were aseptically collected between January to April 2016 from 547 subjects who gave informed consent and completed self-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were analyzed using HBsAg screening kit (ACON Laboratories Inc, USA) and Nested PCR approach. The Chi-square statistical test was performed to identify possible risk factors associated with the viral seropositivity. Overall, 53 (9.7%) had IgG antibodies against HBV. A higher prevalence of (11.0%) was recorded in males than females (8.5%). The study revealed highest prevalence (20.0%) in patients aged ≤ 10 years old. The study recorded an association between the prevalence of HBsAg in relation to the education status of the patient (p < 0.05). The prevalence of HBsAg in relation to the occupation, history of blood transfusion, locality, alcohol intake and cigarette smoking, manicure and pedicure practices, scarification marks and history of HBV vaccination did not show any statistically significant association (p> 0.05). Twenty HBV DNA were serotyped and 17 were found positive for 2 HBV serotypes, adw 9(45.0%) and ayw 8(40.0%) detected. The prevalence of HBV serotypes in relation to all risk factors studied did not show any statistically significant association (p > 0.05). Two of the four HBV serotypes ady and adw were found to be circulating in the studied population. General health education regarding HBV infection should be advocated by Government and Non-Governmental healthcare agencies to enlighten the population of its safety measures. 


Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Susceptibility and Plasmid Profile of Escherichia coli from Door Handles in Two Tertiary Institutions in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

P. A. Tsaku, J. O. Ehinmidu, S. A. Mohammed

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/33612

Aim: This study is aimed at isolation, antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid study of Escherichia coli isolates from door handles in the study location.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in Nasarawa State University, Keffi and Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa, both in Nasarawa state, Nigeria between March 2016 to October 2016.

Methodology: A total of 200 door handles (100 each from the two locations) were sampled and screened for the presence of E. coli. Antibiotics susceptibility study, Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of the antibiotics, -Lactamase production, conjugation and plasmid profile was studied on the bacterial isolates using standard microbiological protocols.

Results: A total of 62 E. coli were isolated out of 200 door handles sampled and their susceptibilities to ten different commonly used antibiotics were determined. All the isolates had 87 – 100% resistance to all tested antibiotics with the highest susceptibility (13%) exhibited to only Gentamicin and Imipenem. Thirty-two of the isolates have Multiple-Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index of 1.0 and 21(65.6%) of them produced β-lactamase enzymes. Thirteen (59.09%) of the multiple antibiotics resistant E. coli isolates transferred resistance plasmid to Proteus mirabilis via conjugation. Electrophoresis of plasmid DNA in the test multi-antibiotics resistant E. coli isolates showed varying number of plasmids with molecular weights ranging between 1200 and 3000 base pairs.

Conclusion: This study has showed that multi-antibiotic resistance genes from test E. coli could be transmitted to pathogenic bacteria which can result in serious health hazard. Thus, improved hygiene practices should be encouraged and constant microbiological surveillance of door handles in these higher institutions should be encouraged to determine effective antibiotics to solve the health hazard that may arise from E. coli infections.


Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Bradyrhizobium and Mycorrhiza on Growth, Yield and Phosphorus Use Efficiency on Soybean under Manure Application

M. O. Adigun, O. A. Babalola

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/33084

A field experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, South West Nigeria, to determine the influence of Bradyrhizobium and mycorrhiza on growth, yield and phosphorus use efficiency of soybean (Glycine max L.) under manure application. The treatments consisted of three factors, Bradyrhizobium (with or without), Phosphorus source (Single super phosphate) and poultry manure (0, 5, 10 ton/ha). The variety of soybean worked on was TX 1448-2E. The influence of these treatments on plant height shows, poultry manure of 0, 5 and 10 ton/ha had no significant difference at 4 – 12 week after planting (WAP) but at 14 WAP plots which received 0 ton/ha had highest values. Also, for Phosphorus source, they shows no differences at 6 WAP while at 4, 8, 10, 12 and 14 WAP plants that received mycorrhiza shows a greater influence on the plant height. Plot with Bradyrhizobium show no differences at 4 and 14 WAP. The application of mycorrhiza as a P source had great influence on soybean production under manure application. Also, the use of poultry manure had an influence on soybean at 5-10 ton/ha. Similarly, on Phosphorus use efficiency, the application of the treatments shows significant differences at 6 WAP where plots that received mycorrhiza with 10 ton/ha of poultry manure showed higher values at p <0.05. However, there were no significant differences on the treatments at 8 WAP, but plots that received Bradyrhizobium, mycorrhiza with 10 tons of poultry manure showed higher values at p<0.05.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Resistance Pattern and Plasmid Profile of Staphylococcus Species Isolated from Clinical and Community Samples in Ibadan South-West, Nigeria

Cajethan O. Ezeamagu, Obasola E. Fagade, Stella I. Smith, Adeniyi A. Ogunjobi

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/33655

Aims: Staphylococcus species have been a major human pathogen of public health importance globally. This study was designed to evaluate the resistance pattern and plasmid profile of Staphylococcus species isolated from clinical and community settings.

Methodology: Staphylococcus species from clinical (55) and community (53) which were previously isolated in University of Ibadan and her teaching hospital and identified as                       S. epidermidis (92.6%), S. aureus (6.5%) and S. xylosus (0.9%) were used. The antibiogram and plasmid profiles were determined by standard procedures.

Results: In clinical isolates of S. epidermidis, 30.9, 34.5, 40.0, 41.8, 60.0, 76.4, and 89.1% were resistant to chloramphenicol (CHL), streptomycin (STR), erythromycin (ERY), gentamycin (GEN), tetracycline (TET), cotrimoxazole (COT), and cloxacillin (CXC) respectively. Correspondingly, in community isolates of S. epidermidis, 28.3, 32.1, 50.9, 26.4, 58.5, 90.6 and 92.5% were resistant to these antibiotics. The only clinical S. xylosus isolated was resistant to all the antibiotics except CHL and STR. In the clinical isolates of S. aureus, 5.5, 5.5, 7.3, 7.3, 7.3, 9.1 and 9.1% were resistant to ERY, CHL, STR, GEN, TET, COT and CXC respectively. In community isolates, only one S. aureus was resistant to COT, CHL, ERY, GEN and STR while two were resistant to CXC.   Plasmid profiling showed that 33/35 (94.3%) of clinical and 17/19 (89.5%) of community isolates had plasmid of size 23.13 kb.

Conclusion: The increasing resistance and similarity of plasmid profile of the community isolates to clinical isolates call for urgent establishment of antibiotic surveillance system to minimize the emergence of drug resistance pathogens in the community.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Alkaline Treatment on Nutrient and Antinutrient Contents of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC.

Ebenezer Ola Falade, Anthony Okhonlaye Ojokoh

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/34028

Aims: To investigate the impact of Trona and woodash (alkaline tenderizers) on aniti-nutrient and nutrient content of Mucuna pruriens during fermentation.

Study Design: Natural fermentation and fermentation using additives (4% Trona, GWA-Gmelina wood ash) was implored.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Akure, Ondo State between November 2014 and March 2015

Methodology: Microbial analysis was carried out using Sabouraud dextrose agar, nutrient agar and De man Rogosa agar. pHand total titratable acidity analysis were carried out. Proximate, mineral composition, antinutrient analysis and in-vitro protein digestibility was also carried out on the fermented samples.

Results: A total of eighteen (18) microorganisms were isolated during fermentation; eleven (11) bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Arthrobacter sp., Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactococcu scremoris), two (2) yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Geotrichum candidum) and five (5) molds, (Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporium and Eurotium rubrum). pH values obtained reduced with increase in fermentation period, Total Titratable acidity (TTA) increased with fermentation. The antinutrient content of the samples decreased significantly with fermentation. A total of 78%, 94%, 74% and 77% reductions in phenol, trypsin, phytate, and tannin were recorded respectively in trona fermented samples. On the other hand, GWA samples recorded most improvement in the proximate analysis results (ash-4.2%, moisture-12.36%, fat-17.63%, and protein-39.51% contents). Furthermore, the highest IVPD (In-vitro protein digestibility) was recorded after the beans were cooked and autoclaved but IVPD drop drastically by 27.6% with Trona fermentation. Results obtained indicate samples fermented with Trona (TR) recorded the highest reduction in antinutrient content of the beans. On the other hand, GWA samples recorded most improvement in the proximate analysis results (ash-4.2%, moisture-12.36%, fat-17.63%, and protein-39.51% contents). Furthermore, the highest IVPD (In vitro protein digestibility) was recorded after the beans were cooked and autoclaved but IVPD drop drastically by 27.6% with Trona fermentation.