Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viruses among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients Accessing Healthcare in Federal Medical Centre, Keffi, Nigeria

Pennap R. Grace, Oti B. Victor, Alaribe A. Gloria, Ajegena S. Abimiku, Galleh P. Raphael

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/34284

Infections of Hepatitis B and C viruses among seropositive Human immunodeficiency virus patients are a growing public health problem in Sub Saharan Africa characterized by unaffordable treatment, severe morbidity and associated mortality. This study was aimed at evaluating the seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C viruses among HIV infected patients accessing health care at Federal Medical Centre, Keffi, Nigeria. The cross-sectional study took place between May-July 2016. A total of 200 blood samples were collected from HIV patients after informed consent and self-administered questionnaires were completed. The samples were centrifuged and the serum screened for HBV and HCV using the immunochromatographic technique. A general prevalence of infection with hepatitis B and C viruses in the study population was 17.5%. The prevalence of HBV infection was 12.5% while HCV was 5.0%. Females have higher infection rates for both viruses (p > 0.05). HBV infection was highest among those aged 20-29 years (14.3%) and lowest among those aged 30-39 years (6.5%). HCV infection was highest among those aged > 40 years (8.7%) and least among those aged 30-39 years (0.0%). Infection rates with blood transfusion, smoking habit, scarification marks and alcohol intake as risk factors were more for HBV than HCV (p > 0.05). The HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV coinfection prevalence of 12.5% and 5.0% respectively is a cause for concern. This finding underscores the urgent need for more proactive HBV immunization programs and screening of HIV patients for HBV and HCV before and even during antiretroviral therapy. Health education against these silent killers should also be advocated.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Antimicrobial Effects of Secondary Metabolites of Anguillan Fungi

Michael Bennardo, Adekunle Sanyaolu, Subhajit Dasgupta

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/34619

Introduction: Many drugs have been isolated from fungal species. This study aims at identifying fungal species isolated in Anguilla in order to determine the antimicrobial effect of their secondary metabolites from pure culture against Staphylococcus aureus by demonstrating the presence of a zone of inhibition in the culture plate.

Methods: Samples were cultured and sub-cultured to isolate pure culture on potato dextrose yeast agar (PDYA) and chosen for further studies by the presence of surface exudates. Those cultures that produced copious amounts of surface exudates were examined for antimicrobial effects by further testing.

Results: Antimicrobial testing of MB0725C (P. digitatum) samples did not result in any evidence            of antimicrobial properties. However, MB0725A (P. chrysogenum) punch biopsy-agar overlay produced a 11 mm ZOI, whereas crude exudates testing resulted in a 27 mm ZOI. Crude culture filtrate of potato dextrose broth (PDB) did not result in any ZOI for either MB0725A or C. Sensitivity testing on samples collected from Yeast Extract Lactose Broth (YELB) on Day 3, Day 6, Day 9 and Day 12  resulted in ZOI of 11 mm, 13, 15 and 17 mm respectively. The change in pH for MB0725A liquid culture in PDB versus YELB was significantly different (N=12, P<0.0001).

Conclusion: MB0725A was an excellent producer of surface exudates and further experiments showed that its secondary metabolites had antimicrobial effects against Staphylococcus aureus using Kirby-Bauer sensitivity testing.


Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh and Raw Fish, Chicken and Beef

Lennox, Josiah A., Etta, Patience O, John, Godwin E., Henshaw, Effiom E.

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/33132

There has been recent outbreaks of food poisoning associated with Listeria monocytogenes. Most of the outbreaks were attributed to fresh meat and dairy products, and processed foods. This study was therefore carried out to examine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in fish, beef & chicken sold in area markets in Calabar. A total of two hundred and fifty five (255) samples; fresh raw fish, chicken and beef were obtained from six different markets and were analyzed for possible contamination with Listeria monocytogenes using compact Dry LS plate. Out of the two hundred and fifty five (255) samples analysed, the results obtained showed one hundred and sixty two (63.5%) were positive. Beef showed a prevalence rate of 88% while chicken and fish showed prevalence rates of 64.7% and 37.7% respectively. The highest bacterial count was recorded in beef (7.2x103 cfu/g) and lowest in fish (1.08 x 102 cfu/g). The market locations also played a role as the Akim market beef showed the highest load followed by Goldie market and Mayne avenue market.        The frequency of occurrence of L. monocytogenes was highest for Watt market with 73.8% followed by Uwanse market with 71.4%. The least occurrence was Marian market. The L. monocytogenes counts (cfu/g) according to locations for beef, chicken and fish showed significance (p < 0.05). However, comparison of the counts beef with chicken, beef with fish, and chicken with fish did not show any significance (p > 0.05). The occurrence and safety challenge of this organism in foods as well as the high mortality rate associated with listeriosis have made the pathogen a serious public health concern. For the fact that L. monocytogenes was isolated from these meat products is of serious concern to the health of consumers of these meats. Documentation of food borne disease outbreaks and the causative agents is therefore necessary.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotics Susceptibility Patterns and Plasmid Profile of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Patients with Wound Infections Attending Four Hospitals in Akure, Ondo State

O. Oluyele, M. K. Oladunmoye

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/33879

Aims: Several studies have documented Staphylococcus aureus as a leading pathogen implicated in wound infections with a remarkable potential for antibiotics resistance. This study determined the susceptibility patterns of S. aureus isolated from wound infections to conventional antibiotics and assessed the plasmid profile of selected multidrug resistant isolates.

Study Design: This study was designed to determine the antibiotics susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from wound infections.

Place and Duration of Study: This research was carried out in the Department of Microbiology Federal University of Technology Akure, between November 2015 and April 2016.

Methodology: Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from wound swab samples of a total of 248 patients (116 males and 132 females within the age range of 5 - 63 years) using standard bacteriological procedures. Susceptibility profile of the isolates to commercially available antibiotics was determined using disc diffusion method. Plasmid profiling and curing were carried out for selected multidrug resistant isolates.

Results: This study revealed that males had a lower percentage occurrence (44.04%) of S. aureus in wounds, while females had a higher percentage occurrence (55.96%). Many of the isolates displayed multi-drug resistance to many of the conventional antibiotics used. Compared to other conventional antibiotics employed in this study, the isolates displayed the lowest percentage resistance to Vancomycin 3 (2.75%); and highest percentage resistance to Erythromycin 56 (51.38%). Multiple plasmids were discovered in the selected multidrug resistant isolates.

Conclusion: Compared to other antibiotics used in this study, Ofloxacin and Vancomycin showed better efficacy against the tested isolates. However, there is need for development of alternative drugs to increase the treatment options for multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.


Open Access Review Article

Antagonistic Compounds Producing Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria: A Tool for Management of Plant Disease

Himanshu Singh, Vishakha Jaiswal, Siddhi Singh, S. P. Tiwari, Bharti Singh, Deepmala Katiyar

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/33368

Agriculture is facing struggle to meet the various confront of reducing plant diseases for an increasing world population food security. Great quantities of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are required for high productivity which can damage ecosystem structures and functions, including the soil microbial community which plays an important role in agriculture sustainability. Soil is an excellent niche of growth of much plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. PGPR are naturally occurring soil bacteria that aggressively colonize in plant roots and play a vital role in crop protection, growth promotion and in the improvement of soil health. Scientific researchers involve multidisciplinary approaches to understand adaptation of PGPR, effects on plant physiology and growth induced systemic resistance, biocontrol of plant pathogens and biofertilization. The primary mechanism of biocontrol by PGPR involves the production of antibiotics such as carboxylic acid, 2,4-diacetyl phloroglucinoloomycin,pyoluteorin,pyrrolnitrin,kanosamine,zwittemycin-A and pantocin. A cascade of endogenous signals such as sensor kinases, N-acyl homoserine lactones and sigma factors regulates the synthesis of antibiotics. Some of these antibiotics have broad spectrum against many plant pathogens like fungi, viruses and bacteria, affecting crop plants. These antibiotics also serve as determinants in triggering induced systemic resistance (ISR) in the plant system.