Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Malabor Hostel Tap Water, Calabar- Nigeria

O. A. Mmuoegbulam, A. A. Unimke, I. U. Bassey, I. U. Bassey, E. E. Igwe

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/33921

The antibiotic resistance and susceptibility profiles of some bacterial isolates including Listeria monocytogenes, Erwinia stewartii, Legionella pneumophilia, Carnobacterium gallinarum, Staphylococcus caseolyticus, Enterobacter dissolves, Pseudomonas mallei, Klebsiella pneumonia, Aeromonas media and Lactobacillus sp. were determined using some broad and narrow spectrum antibiotics by the disk diffusion technique. Based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) interpretive criteria, some isolates were found to be resistant to some of the tested antibiotics but susceptible to others. Among the Gram-positive bacterial isolates, Lactobacillus specie had the highest susceptibility profile with the zone of clearance ranging from 28 - 30 ± 8 mm in diameter. However, among the Gram-negative bacterial isolates, Pseudomonas mallei, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Aeromonas media were susceptible to all tested antibiotics, with 30 mm ± 0 mm zones of clearance. CLSI standards were used to interpret results; while Lactobacillus sp. was the most susceptible isolate, Erwinia stewartii was resistant to all the test antibiotics except ceporex.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viruses among Eligible Blood Donors in a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Philip A. Akpu, Oti B. Victor

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/34352

The prevalence of blood borne viral infections such as Hepatitis B and C viruses is a public health problem. Screening blood donors is needed to prevent further spread of such infections. The current study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses among eligible blood donors in a tertiary healthcare facility in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on eligible blood donors attending the Heamatological Unit of Federal Medical Centre, Keffi, Nigeria. One hundred blood donors were screened for ABO blood groups using white plain tile. Hepatitis B and C seromarkers were further screened using a rapid test kits (ACON Laboratories Inc, USA). Informed consent and completed self-administered questionnaires on their socio-demographics and exposure to some possible risk factors were obtained. A general prevalence of infections with hepatitis B and C viruses in the study population was 21.0%. The prevalence of HBV was 14.0% while HCV was 7.0% and no blood donor was coinfected with the 2 viruses. However, in this study, gender, age, marital status, occupation, blood group and history of blood transfusion had no statistically significant association with Hepatitis B and C viral infections   (p > 0.05). The 21.0% infection rate reported in this population is a cause for alert because it means there is a high viral reservoir in the area. Measures such as more sensitive techniques, immunization and health education must be advocated in the study area.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Bacterial Contamination and Safety of Bangladeshi Paper Currencies (Taka) Collected from Various Food Vendors

Sanjoy Kumar Mukharjee, Sazzad Hossain, Md. Saifur Rahman

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/34256

Aims: Paper currency notes can act as transmission vehicle for microorganisms because of their widespread use and constant exchange from hand to hand. This study aimed at determining the level of bacterial contamination and the safety of the notes collected from some food vendors in Noakhali district, Bangladesh. 

Methodology: A total of 20 currency notes (BDT 2, BDT 5, BDT 10, BDT 20) were collected at random from 5 different food vendors (Chotpoti, Chicken, Jhalmuri, Fish and Meat) at Noakhali, Bangladesh. Each sample was washed with Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) and inoculated onto Nutrient Agar (NA) for total viable count. Standard microbiological and biochemical methods were used for the enumeration, isolation and characterization of pathogenic bacteria. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of isolated bacteria against commonly used antibiotic drugs was carried out through Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Growth potential of the isolated bacteria observed in selected weaning foods (milk and mango juice).

Results: About 90% of the currency notes were contaminated with bacteria. The highest amount of viable count (3.3×1010 CFU/ml) was found in BDT 10 of Chotpoti sample. A total of 30 bacterial isolates were identified from all the currencies. Of them, Escherichia coli (33.33%) was the most frequently isolated bacterial species followed by Staphylococcus aureus (26.66%), Bacillus cereus (13.33%), Micrococcus spp. (10%), Klebsiella spp. (3.33%), Salmonella spp. (3.33%), Vibrio cholerae (10%). Antibiotic sensitivity test reveals that, most of the isolates were highly resistant to vancomycin, ampicillin and penicillin, while no or little resistance was found against gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. In challenge study, Salmonella spp., S. aureus reached the level of infective dose within 6 or 12 hours of inoculation in respective foods. Vibrio cholera didn’t reach this stage. The pH values of both food samples challenged with selected microorganism showed some variability because of fermentation. 

Conclusion: This study revealed that paper currencies collected from food vendors in Noakhali, Bangladesh were contaminated with different pathogenic bacteria including multi drug resistant strains. Thus, it calls for awareness development on the potential risks associated with poor handling of paper currencies at all level of the food establishments.


Open Access Original Research Article

Potentials of Coconut Milk as a Substitute for Cow Milk in Cheese Making

Ekanem, George Okon, Philippa C. Ojimelukwe

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/34537

Aim: The project aimed at producing cheese products by partial substitution of cow milk with coconut milk and evaluating the nutrient content and sensory properties of the products.

Experimental Design: The experimental design was a randomized complete block (RCBD).

Methodology: This experiment was conducted at the University of Uyo, Nigeria. Coconut milk was extracted with water (1:1 ratio) and mixed with fresh raw cow milk at varying proportions (10:90; 20:80; 30:70). The control was 100% cow milk. They were used to produce cheese. The control and the partially substituted cheeses were stored in a refrigerator and examined for sensory quality, microbial quality and nutrient composition.

Results: The yield of cheese showed significant (p< 0.05) decrease from 27.20% (control sample) to 15.30% in the cheese product containing 30% coconut milk. No coliforms were found in the fermented products suggesting that they were safe for consumption. The protein content of the cow-coconut cheese blends increased (p < 0.05) from 15.82% to17.14% (at 10%-30% substitution of coconut milk), while the control sample had 15.11%. There was also an increase in fat content from 12.06 - 13.87% (10% - 30% substitution of coconut milk), with the control sample having 11.65%. There was a decrease in the carbohydrate content of the cheese blends which ranged between 12.44% -0.54%, with the control sample having 16.64%. There was a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the ash content of the cow-coconut cheese blends, with the control sample having 1.80% ash. There was no significant difference observed in the colour, taste, texture, and overall acceptability as influenced by addition of coconut milk. The blend with 10% coconut milk and 90% cow milk was most acceptable by panelists in terms of aroma. Acceptable cheeses with improved nutritional value and consumer acceptability could be made from 1:9 ratio of coconut milk and cow milk.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fermentation on Production of Bioethanol from Peels of Cocoyam Using Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

D. V. Adegunloye, D. O. Udenze

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/34032

Bioethanol is an alternative to fossil fuel and it’s produced by fermentation of sugar components of plant materials. The effect of fermentation on production of bioethanol from peels of cocoyam using sequential mono-cultures and co-cultures of Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Standard methods were used to carry out isolation, identification and analysis of the samples. Sixty grams of cocoyam peels was dried and ground; and was subjected to heat pretreatment. Direct fermentation of cocoyam peels to ethanol by sequential monocultures and co-cultures of Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was done for 7 days during which reducing sugar yield, amylolytic activity rate, residual starch and ethanol yield were determined. Residual starch (9.18-4.42 g/100 ml) and reducing sugar (9.86-4.21% g/100 ml) yield decreases as fermentation progresses. Amylolytic activity rate (31.00-0 U/ml) and ethanol yields (5.65-0.00 g/100 ml) increased several-fold in co-cultures and mono-cultures. From this study, it is concluded that the peels of cocoyam can be employed for bioethanol production.