Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activities of Some Commercial Cosmetics on Selected Cutaneous Microflora

T. V. Adegoke, D. J. Arotupin, T. C. Ekundayo

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/32969

The antimicrobial activities of twenty-two cosmetics on selected cutaneous microflora were investigated. The microorganisms isolated from the human skin were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staph. aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and A. fumigatus. It was observed that those cosmetics that did not inhibit some specific microorganisms at 100 mg/ml did not also inhibit the microorganisms at 400 mg/ml. Ten (45.45%) of the cosmetics had antimicrobial effect on Staph. epidermidis, nine (40.91%) of the cosmetics had antimicrobial effect on Staph. aureus, six (27.27%) of the cosmetics had antimicrobial effect on Micrococcus luteus, four (18.18%) of the cosmetics had antimicrobial effect on Bacillus subtilis, only one (4.55%) of the cosmetics had antimicrobial effect on Proteus mirabilis. Also five (22.73%) each of the cosmetics had antimicrobial effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, none of the cosmetics was able to inhibit A. niger and A. funmigatus. Most of the cosmetics employed in the course of the research could cause diseases in immune competent patient.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Microbial Diversity of Spent-Oil Contaminated Soil in Calabar, Nigeria

A. A. Unimke, A. O. Mmuoegbulam, I. U. Bassey, S. E. Obot

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/34847

This study was designed to assess the total heterotrophic and hydrocarbon oxidizing microbial diversity, determine the physicochemical parameters of oil contaminated soil and evaluate the potentials of microorganisms isolated to utilize spent oil. Three mechanic workshops within Calabar South axis of Cross River State Nigeria were selected and three soil samples were collected from each site. The total heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated on nutrient agar and the hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria on minimal salt medium using the vapor phase method after employing the ten-fold dilutions from 1:10 to 1:100000. The total heterotrophic mean count ranged from 1.28×104 to 3.58×104 cfu/g while mean count of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria varied from 1.94×104 to 7.34×104 cfu/g. Physicochemical parameters of samples were determined. Such parameters included pH, electrical conductivity and compounds such as nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, calcium, magnesium and potassium. The bacterial isolates evaluated belonged to the genera of Bacillus, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Enterococcus, Flavobacterium and Micrococcus spp. Klebsiella spp. emerged as the most prevalent heterotrophic bacteria with 29.41% while Bacillus spp, and Enterococcus spp. were the least prevalent with 11.77%. Among the hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, Pseudomonas flourescens was the most prevalent species with 53.85% while Micrococcus spp. was the least with 15.39%. Amongst the 3 different sites studied, the mechanic workshop at Goldie Street had the highest mean value for both heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria ranging from 2.52x104 to 3.58 x10cfu/g for total heterotrophs and 3.27x104 to 7.34x104 cfu/g for hydrocarbon utilizers. The findings reveal that there is a high prevalence of certain populations of active indigenous hydrocarbon oxidizing bacteria which can be monitored and enhanced to bring about bioremediation in the study area.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of the Use of Different Concentrations of ‘Kuuru’ on the Nutritional Quality of Fermented Parkia biglobosa Seeds

T. R. Omodara, E. Y. Aderibigbe

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/32551

The study was carried out to determine the effect of different concentrations of ‘kuuru’ on the nutritional quality of fermented African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) seeds. The dried seeds were processed into ‘iru-pete’, either by boiling the seeds with varying concentrations (1:300 to 1:50 w/w) of ‘kuuru’ or use of starter culture (Bacillus subtilis strain BC4333). The fermentation was carried out in an incubator at 35°C for 36 h. Commercial samples of ‘iru-pete’ and ‘iru-woro’ were used as control. The unfermented sample and fermented products were analyzed for sensory properties, proximate composition, concentration of anti-nutritional factors (phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor), anti-oxidants level (phenol, total flavonoids and free radical scavengers), concentration of vitamins (A, B, C, D and E) and protein digestibility. The commercial samples of both ‘iru-woro’ and ‘iru-pete’ were more acceptable than the laboratory-fermented products. Similar trends were observed for stickness, texture, colour, odour and overall acceptance. Other proximate parameters (ash, crude fibre and fat) did not show any consistent trend when the concentration of ‘kuuru’ added increased. The concentrations of phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor in ‘iru-pete’ produced using 1:300 to 1:50 (w/w) of ‘kuuru’, increased from 6.99 mg/g to 10.43 mg/g and 45.51 mg/g to 60.44 mg/g, respectively. Increasing concentration of ‘kuuru’ decreased the level of antioxidants present in the fermented products from 1:300 w/w (0.64 mg/g to 0.38 mg/g) in total phenol, (0.86 mg/g to 0.22 mg/g) in total flavonoids and (91.75 mg/g to 73.32 mg/g) in DPPH. Increasing concentration of ‘kuuru’ led to significant reduction in the vitamins A content of the ‘kuuru’-fermented products. Similar trend of decrease was observed for vitamins C and E. The in-vitro protein digestibility of ‘kuuru’ fermented products ranged from 39.91% to 36.09%. This research paper confirms that ‘kuuru’ is not a suitable additive in the production of ‘iru-pete’.


Open Access Original Research Article

Yield of Metarhizium anisopliae Conidia on Four Tropical Cereals and in vitro Evaluation of Virulence against Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrisomelidae)

O. A. Borisade, A. A. Oso, M. J. Falade

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/34610

Aims: To evaluate conidia yield of entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae Net 275.86DC on different tropical cereal substrates and evaluate its virulence against the bruchid weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus in vitro.

Methodology: The fungus was cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) and incubated at ambient temperature (mean daily temperature=30°C) for 14 days. Radial extension was measured daily along pre-marked orthogonal axes and used to estimate growth rate. Conidia from 14 days SDA culture were scraped into 10 mL Reverse Osmosis (RO) water containing 0.02 µl of surfactant, Tween 80. Ten gramms sub-samples of cereal grains; maize, rice, sorghum and millet were washed and soaked in RO water overnight at 4°C. Thereafter, they were transferred into 250 mL glass jars with micro-porous lid in triplicates and autoclaved at 121°C and 15 psi for 30 minutes. The jars were left for 2-3 hours to cool and the water activity (aw) of the substrates were determined, followed by inoculation with 1 µl of 1.0 x 104 conidia mL-1 of prepared seed inoculum. Incubation was done in the dark for 14 days in equilibrated environment (ERH>98%). Conidia were harvested by pouring RO water containing 0.02-0.05% Tween 80 unto the substrates in the jars followed by vortexing. Pure conidia were recovered by vacuum filtration and concentrated into 10 mL suspension using a centrifuge. Conidia concentration (conidia mL-1=Yield) was determined using improved Neubauer haemocytometer under x40 objective of light microscope. Three concentrations, 1.0 x 105, 1.0 x106, 3.9 x106 conidia mL-1were tested for virulence against C. maculatus using in vitro bioassay system with adult insects and the median lethal time, LT50 of the fungus was determined.

Results: The growth rate on SDA media was 2 mm day-1 and the yield on millet was significantly the highest, 5.53 x 106 conidia mL-1. Conidia concentrations from maize, sorghum and rice substrates were 4.73 x 105, 2.8 x 105 and 1.3 x 105 conidia mL-1 respectively. The yields from maize and sorghum were not significantly (P>0.05) different. The fungus was virulent against C. maculatus, LT50=1.6 days at 3.9 x106 conidia mL-1.

Conclusion: Some of the tropical cereals could be adopted for mass production of virulent conidia of the entomopathogenic fungi at relatively low cost of production.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Isolates from Hospital and Community Settings in Nigeria

E. N. Mbim, C. I. Mboto, U. O. Edet, C. F. Umego, U. E. George, I. Temidayo

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/34542

The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to resist cefoxitin amongst other antibiotics has made it a significant public health problem in hospital and community settings. In this study, the occurrence of cefoxitin (methicillin) resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the University of Calabar Medical Center and community was evaluated after obtaining informed consent and ethical approval. A total of 150 clinical samples collected from participants seen at the Medical Center and community settings were analyzed. Isolates were identified and characterized following standard microbiological procedures while antimicrobial sensitivity was carried out using the disc diffusion method. A total of 42 S. aureus strains were isolated, out of which 27(64.3%) were from the Medical Center and 15(35.7%) were from the community samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of test isolates showed high resistance to the test antibiotics with cefoxitin being the highest (60%). Out of the 60% MRSA recovered, 74.1% (20/27) were from University of Calabar Medical Center while 33.3% (5/15) were from the Community. In addition, MRSA isolates from both locations also showed resistance to other antibiotics including amoxicillin, ampicillin+cloxacillin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin and erythromycin. This study revealed a high occurrence of Hospital-setting methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) strains compared to Community-setting methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strains. This study further revealed that MRSA were multi-drug resistant. Thus, good infection control practices including identifying and treating MRSA carriers, moderate use of antibiotics and hand washing could reduce the burden associated with MRSA-related infections. To further establish and characterize multidrug resistant S. aureus strains, genotypic studies may be employed.