Open Access Case study

Chronic Inflammation of the Tibiotalar Joint with a Lateral Malleolar Fistula: A Rare Presentation of Tuberculosis

Zohreh Aminzadeh, Fatemeh Abbasi

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/37115

Skeletal tuberculosis accounts for 1-3% of all tuberculosis cases and 10-11% of extra- pulmonary tuberculosis. Ankle and foot involvement presents in less than 5% of all skeletal tuberculosis. Primary tuberculous pyomyositis, bursitis, and tenosynovitis are rare and account for about 1% of skeletal tuberculosis. Joint involvement of tuberculosis most commonly manifests as a mono-arthritis of weight-bearing joints in the hip or the knee. Trauma has been associated with tuberculosis in 30-50% of cases. As the elderly population is growing, the rate of tuberculosis in particular extra-pulmonary and atypical forms of disease has increased among older adults. We report a 79-year-old woman complaining of chronic ankle pain, swelling and a lateral malleolar fistula. Her past medical and family histories revealed no previous tuberculosis. An ankle strain of her left ankle after slipping had occurred prior to her problem. There was no evidence of concomitant tuberculosis at other sites. The PPD test was negative. The combination of indolent onset of symptoms and compatible MRI findings strongly suggested the diagnosis. Ankle synovial biopsy showed necrotising granulomatous inflammation and PCR test detected mycobacterium tuberculosis genome in the synovial tissue. A careful suspicion of the diagnosis of tuberculosis is paramount in patients with chronic mono-articular arthritis, even in absence of a positive tuberculin test or abnormalities on chest radiograph.


Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous and Hydroethanolic Extracts of the Stem Bark of Erythroxylum emarginatum (Erythroxy laceae)

Kouakou Kouakou Victor, Fofie N'guessan Bra Yvette, Opkekon Aboua Thimotee, Yapi Houphouet Felix, Gbassi Komenan Gildas

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/34439

The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of of aqueous and hydoethanolic extracts of the stem bark of Erytroxylum emarginatum commonly used by the Ivorian population to treat various infections.

Bactericidal efficacy evaluated on strains such as Escherichia coli, Klebsilla pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia.

The choice of selection of these bacterial strains due to high incidence as commonly aquired pnemonia in Africa and development of resistance. The methods used were the method of macrodilution in a liquid medium and the diffusion method in agar medium. Study results evinced minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous and hydroethonolic extracts of Erytroxylum emarginatum on bactericidal action.

This screening study demonstarted the use of stem bark extracts of Erytroxylum emarginatum emphasise the alternate use for bacterial infections.      


Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Alpha Amylase by Bacillus subtilis Using Maize Husk as Substrate

A. Madika, J. B. Ameh, D. A. Machido

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/37137

Aim: To produce alpha amylase by Bacillus subtilis using maize husk as substrate.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria between August 2016 and December 2016.

Methodology: The proximate composition of the maize husk substrate was determined following standard procedures described by Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). The effects of incubation temperature, initial pH, incubation period and moisture content on the production of alpha amylase were investigated. Alpha amylase was produced by the B. subtlis isolate using maize husk as substrate by solid state fermentation under predetermined optimum fermentation conditions. The type of amylase produced was identified by sugar analysis using glucose and maltose as standards on thin layer chromatography (TLC).

Results: The proximate analysis of the maize husk revealed percentages of ash (4.83%), crude protein (7.00%) and carbohydrates (60.37%) contents. All parameters optimized were found to significantly (P < 0.05) influence α-amylase production using maize husk. An overall yield of 51.65±0.13 U/g of alpha amylase was obtained under predetermined optimum fermentation conditions (35°C, pH 7.0, 72hrs and moisture content of 1:2). The product of starch hydrolysis on the TLC plate was found to appear as a spot with a retention factor (Rf) of 0.48 which is the same as that of standard maltose. Thus, indicating that the amylase produced was alpha amylase.

Conclusion: Maize husk contains sufficient organic nutrients for growth and amylase production by B. subtilis. The study also revealed the potential of maize husk as substrate in the production of alpha amylase by B. subtilis.


Open Access Original Research Article

Infective Keratitis in Alexandria Main University Hospital

Zainab Abdelkader, Alaa Ghaith, Soraya El- Shazy, Walaa Hazzah

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/37259

Background: Blindness is and, apparently always has been, a problem in Egypt. Corneal blindness is a major public health problem in which; 1.5–2.0 million new cases of monocular blindness reported annually in developing countries is secondary to corneal ulceration. Bacterial keratitis is one of the most threatening ocular infectious pathologies that can lead to severe visual disability. To help avoiding the specific therapy risks of disease progression and the microbiological investigations being incomplete or misleading, other organisms as virus, fungi, and Acanthamoeba should be considered.

Aims: To isolate and identify different bacterial agents causing keratitis and identify factors associated with bacterial keratitis.

Study Design:  This cross-sectional study was carried out to identify causative pathogens and to determine the demographic characteristics, predisposing factors of keratitis (corneal ulcer).

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Department of Microbiology, in High Institute of Public Health, and Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, between; August, 2014 to May, 2015.

Methodology: A total of 100 cases were examined, samples (corneal swab and scrapings) were collected from clinically diagnosed corneal ulcer patients attending Ophthalmology outpatient clinic of Alexandria Main University Hospital. Samples were processed by corneal smear microscopy (potassium hydroxide and Gram stains) and culture examination (5% sheep blood agar, sheep blood chocolate agar, and Sabouraud dextrose agar and brain heart infusion).

Results: Out of 100 cases, 49 (52.1%) cases had bacterial growth, 32 (34%) patients showed fungal growth, 20 (21.3%) cases had viral keratitis and 24 (25.5%) cases had Acanthamoeba corneal infestation. The predominant bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus epidermidis 24 (48%) followed by Pseudomonas species 8 (16%). Aspergillus species 16 (50%) were the most common fungal isolates followed by Fusarium species 10 (31.2%). Common associated factors were diabetes mellitus (29%), and corneal trauma (17%).

Conclusions: Diabetes was the most common general risk factor while corneal trauma was the most common local cause. The main causative organism of microbial keratitis was bacteria, where Staphylococcus spp. the main agent followed by P. aeruginosa. Vancomycin and fluoroquinolones showed higher rates of sensitivities on bacteria compared to other antibacterial agents.


Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Salmonella typhi Infection in Karu Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria

J. O. K. Abioye, Bulus Salome, L. Y. Adogo

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/37074

Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Salmonella typhi infection in Karu Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

Place of Study: Karu Local Government Area, Nasarawa State; Department of Biological Sciences, Bingham University, Karu.

Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty two blood and stool samples were collected from volunteers including children and adults, using stratified random sampling method. Widal test served as a presumptive screening test while the stool culture served as the confirmatory test. A sample was considered positive with the titer value of 1:80 and above. Biochemical tests were carried out on each isolate to further confirm the presence of S. typhi.

Results: Out of the 252 samples screened, 158 were found to be positive for S. typhi with a prevalence of 62.70%. The gender distribution of the disease revealed a higher prevalence of 71.43% in females than 53.97% in males. Also the age distribution of the disease revealed the highest prevalence of 80.95% in the age group of 1-15 years and the least prevalence of 40.30%  was recorded within the age group of 46-60 years. The distribution of the infection was statistically significant (p > 0.05) to age. The infection was highest in Mararaba with a prevalence of (77.38%) and the least prevalence of 48.81% was recorded in Karu.

Conclusion: The prevalence of Salmonella typhi infection in Karu local government of Nasarawa State of Nigeria is high. This situation calls for urgent control measures on the part of individuals and the government by provision of provision of basic life utilities such as portable water.