Open Access Original Research Article

The Prevalence of Skin-tattooing and HIV among Students of Three Tertiary Institutions in Ondo State, Southwest, Nigeria

G. O. Daramola, A. O. Oluyege, H. A. Edogun, A. O. Ajayi, C. O. Esan, A. O. Ojerinde, O. O. Ajala, A. Agbaje, O. Ogunfolakan, A. Egbebi

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/37366

With the huge potential health hazards and dangers associated with skin and sclera tattooing, there is hardly any responsible government anywhere that will not take interest in the rate and manner its populace in general and the youths in particular engage in the practice of skin tattooing and put some form of regulations in place. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of skin tattooing among the undergraduates of three universities in Ondo State (Southwest, Nigeria) and also determine if any of those with tattoos had contacted any blood-borne diseases as a result of this. This is especially needful in a country like Nigeria that does not yet have any regulations in place as regards the practice of skin-tattooing. One hundred each, making a total of three hundred participants were enrolled in the study from the three universities. Five millilitre of blood from each subject was screened for the presence HIV antibodies (DETERMINE®) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The subjects were also asked to complete a structured self-administered questionnaire. The result revealed a zero sero-prevalence of antibodies to HIV, but a skin tattooing prevalence of 20%, 9% and 0% among the undergraduates of Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko; Achiever’s University, Owo and Federal University of Technology, Akure, respectively. Thus representing an overall skin tattooing prevalence of 9.6%. The study also showed that 8.3% of the subjects had a history of blood transfusion, while 7.3% had a history of surgery. It was therefore concluded that skin tattooing was not a statistically significant major risk factor for HIV/AIDS among the undergraduates, though this does not in any way obliterate the potent potential risk for the transmission of HIV that is inherent in any practice like skin tattooing that pierces the human skin with sharp or pointed objects.  


Open Access Original Research Article

Immunomodulatory and Toxicological Effect of Goya Extra Virgin Olive Oil in Albino Rat Orogastrically Dosed with Salmonella typhi

J. O. Aribisala, M. K. Oladunmoye

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/37372

The immunomodulatory and toxicological properties of Goya extra virgin olive oil on albino rats orogastrically dosed with Salmonella typhi were evaluated in this study. Twenty albino rats were randomly distributed into four groups (A-D) of five rats each. The groups (B-D) infected with Salmonella typhi, revealed that the animals shows depressed activity and weakness characterised by slow movement. The rats in groups B were treated with olive oil, group C were treated with 20 mg ofloxacin, while Group A rats served as control and group D rats were left untreated. Group B and C rats were treated orogastrically with olive oil and ofloxacin daily for seven days. The total phenol derivative present in the olive oil which contributes to the observed inhibitory effect of the oil was 14.90 mg/g. At the end of the treatment period, haematological analysis of the groups infected and fed with olive oil (B) showed white blood cell count (WBC) to be within the normal range (11.8×103/mm3) indicating the immunomodulatory effect of olive oil. The WBC was least in value in the control group (A) (6.7 ×103/mm3) and highest in the untreated group (D) whose WBC (15.9×103/mm3) was outside the normal range of WBC for an apparently healthy rat. The control group had the highest PCV (Packed cell volume) value of 56%, while olive oil to some extent help to modulate the PCV which can be revealed when the group treated with olive oil (52%) was compared with the untreated group (41.3%). Histopathological analysis shows liver of all infected group to have karyolysis and have cells that shows less prominent nucleus. The kidney of all the infected animals in group fed with olive oil (B) and those treated with antibiotics (C) shows infiltrations of cell, destruction of the glomerular tuft, and focal destruction of the renal tubules while The group left untreated (D) showed Tubular necrosis, vacuolation, destruction of the renal tubules, hyalinization, and degeneration of the glomerular tuft with possible infiltration of lymphocytes. The findings of this study revealed the non-toxic and immunomodulatory properties of olive oil, its suitability as an amazing food supplement that can improve human health and its efficacy as an alternative to antibiotics.


Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization Potential of Kitchen Waste Sludge as Organic Fertilizer

B. A. Oso, T. A. Ogunnusi, C. O. Adeleye

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/37358

Aim: To investigate the possible conversion of kitchen waste sludge into organic fertilizer using a bio-treatment agent.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Afe Babalola University in the green house and the Kitchen waste sludge was obtained from the open drain behind Cafeteria 2 on Campus.

Methodology: Microbial analyses of kitchen waste sludge were carried out using the pour plate method to isolate and identify bacteria and fungi. Treatment of kitchen waste sludge with OBD-plus a biotreatment/bioremediation agent was done and plant growth trials with maize carried out in the green house with both treated and untreated kitchen waste as biofertilizer. Physicochemical analyses were carried out on both the treated and untreated kitchen waste sludge.

Results: Six microorganisms were isolated. These included three bacteria; Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis while the fungi were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillum citrinum. All these isolates grew on engine oil and vegetable oil agar as carbon source. Using the one-way Analysis of Variance at a level of 0.05(95%), the P value was ≤ 0.05 which showed that there is a statistical significant difference between the treated and untreated samples. The pH for the untreated kitchen waste (UKW) was 5.92 while for the treated kitchen waste (TKW), it was 5.60. The moisture content (%) for UKW was 44.60 and 23.22 for TKW. % dry matter for UKW=55.40 and TKW=76.78, % total nitrogen for UKW and TKW=18.48 and 23.04 respectively, total phosphorus for UKW=0.079% while TKW=0.222%. Potassium as k20 for UKW=3.6% and TKW=6.3%, oil content for UKW=59.26%, TKW=21.54%, Zinc concentration in UKW=6.6ppm and TKW=0.85ppm, Lead concentration in the UKW=0.57ppm and TKW=0.33 ppm. Plant growth trials of maize using treated and untreated kitchen waste as bio-fertilizer and mixed with sand were carried out in the green house. Good growths of maize were observed in the soil with treated kitchen waste while the growths on the untreated waste dried up and died after some days.

Conclusion: The kitchen waste sludge treated with OBD-plus supported the growth of maize when compared to the untreated. There was also a reduction in the level toxic/heavy metals present while there was an increase in the level of some elements such as magnesium. This study shows that with biotreatment, kitchen waste can serve as biofertilizers. The limitation of this study is that the kitchen waste was not collected at random and is a representation of a specific case.


Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Isolates from Patients with Septicaemia in Butembo, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Gabriel Kambale Bunduki, Zacharie Tsongo Kibendelwa, Adélard Kalima Nzanzu

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/38055

Background: Emergence of antimicrobial resistance has limited treatment options against bloodstream infections. This study aimed to determine bacterial isolates from blood culture of patients with bloodstream infection and their sensitivity to antimicrobials at patients attending the Central Laboratory of Research of the “Université Catholique du Graben” (UCG) in Butembo.

Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study adopting a descriptive approach, conducted from January, 2015 to December, 2016. Blood was collected from a peripheral vein using an aseptic technique. The culture and the antimicrobial susceptibility testing were done by using standard methods according to the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines.

Results: The most isolated bacteria from blood culture of patient with bloodstream infections were Staphylococcus aureus (39.8%), Listeria spp. (17.4%), Moraxella spp. (14.3%), Bacillus spp. (13.4%) and Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis (4.1%). All bacterial isolates tested for sensitivity were resistant to the group of β-lactamine antibiotics except S. aureus which was sensitive only to vancomycin. It was also observed that all the bacterial species have a Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index greater than 0.2.

Conclusion: Bloodstream infections are life-threatening conditions, continuous and regular monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of responsible bacteria is needed. From this study, we suggested gentamicin, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin as the first line antibiotics of choice for empiric treatment of bloodstream infections in Butembo.


Open Access Review Article

Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics: Current Situation in Sudan

Abeer M. Abass; Muna E. Ahmed; Ishraga G. Ibrahim, S. A. Yahia

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/36715

Aims: This work was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria of human and animal origin to commonly used antibiotics in Sudan according to the previous studies on antimicrobial resistant.

Study Design: Data were collected from relevant studies for both human and animal sectors published during 2001 to 2017 and met the inclusion criteria. Examined samples includes: serum, urine, milk, stool, abscesses and tissue sample.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in Khartoum State Sudan during 2016-2017.

Methodology: The data collected in this study were obtained from different educational institution and research centers located in Khartoum State and previous reports related to antimicrobial resistant.

Results: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Klebsiella spp. Proteus spp. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) and Salmonella enteritidis (Sal. enteritidis) were the most commonly encountered organism. Most of the studied organisms were highly resistance to: chloramphenicol, penicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ampicillin (10%), sulbactam, cefotaxime (30%), nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid, colistin sulphate and streptomycin, vancomycin, imipenem, amikacin (30%), and tobramycin. While Ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, gentamicin (30%), and Linezolid were the antibiotics with the highest activity against isolated organism.

Conclusion: The currently data, suggested that the antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance of most common Gram positive and Gram negative organisms causing diseases are similar to other countries. Clinicians should be aware of the existing data and treat patients according to the susceptibility patterns. Further studies are wanted from all over the country because there is limited published data.