Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Identification of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in an Indian Sample with Aggressive Periodontitis

R. Saranyan, B. Manovijay, G. Balaji Babu, Rajasekar ., I. Nithya, A. Anitha

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/37877

Background: The role of microorganisms and the etiology of periodontal disease is well established. Despite the fact that periodontal diseases are caused by dental plaque there existed some controversies regarding the role of specific organisms in the pathogenesis of the periodontal disease. This problem was overcome by the specific plaque hypothesis. Generally, the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) is identified employing anaerobic culture and in recent years through polymerized chain reaction. Very few attempts have been done to establish the confirmation of Aa through biochemical reactions. Hence this study was under taken to confirm Aa from the plaque sample by various biochemical tests.

Aim of the Study: Biochemical identification of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a specific periodontal pathogen from the plaque samples of aggressive periodontitis patients.

Materials and Methods: A total of forty patients 24 males and 16 females in the age range of 18-25 yrs. Diagnosed as aggressive periodontitis were included in this study. Plaque samples were collected from the periodontal pockets of aggressive periodontitis patients and were subjected to various biochemical tests.

Results: Biochemical tests confirmed that the periodontal pathogen collected from the plaque samples were Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

Conclusion: Biochemical tests can be used as a viable economic alternative for the confirmation of the periodontal pathogen Aa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Boswellia dalzielii Leaves Extracts against Some Pathogenic Bacterial Isolates

F. S. Nas, M. Ali

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/37690

Antibacterial Activity of Boswellia dalzielii Leaves Extracts against Some Pathogenic Bacterial Isolates

Aim: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial activity of Boswllia dalzielii leaves extracts and its major phytochemical constituents.

Materials and Methods: The aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts from the leaves of the plant was tested using agar well diffusion method for their antibacterial activity against some members of Enterobacteriaceae family isolated from diarrheic stool sample (Escherichia coli, Shigella spp, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella spp).

Results: Preliminary phytochemical analyses showed that the leaves extracts contain alkaloids, tannins, terpenoid, Anthraquinone, reducing sugar, amino acid, flavonoid, saponins, glycosides and phenols. The results of antibacterial activity of the leaves extracts shows that the plant extracts were active against the microorganisms tested. The methanol extract showed the highest zones of inhibition against tested organisms compared to aqueous and chloroform extract. Statistical analysis of the result showed that an average zone of inhibition of 15.44 mm, 14.78 mm, 12.92 mm and 11.31 mm for E. coli, Shigella spp S. typhi and Klebsiella spp, respectively were found. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the extracts ranged between 6.25 – 100 mg/ml.

Conclusion: The extracts of the plant leaves demonstrated antibacterial activity against microorganisms causing diarrhea stool due to presence of phytochemical constituents hence, the application of the decoction of leaves of the plants in ethno medicine is justified.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Sida cuneifolia Vollesen against Staphylococcus aureus

B. Kipng’etich, L. A. Mwamburi, J. M. Mulei, P. Jeruto, T. Chemweno

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/37894

Background: Sida cuneifolia is utilized traditionally to treat many ailments yet as far as we know its medicinal properties have not been scientifically tested locally in Kenya. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the antimicrobial properties of S. cuneifolia against Staphylococcus aureus and investigate the phytochemicals present in the leaves, roots and stem that are of medicinal importance.

Method: The plant was separated into root, leaves and stem bark. Water and ethanol were used for extraction of active ingredients. Antimicrobial bioassays and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests were done on S. aureus. Phytochemicals of medicinal importance were also determined using thin layer chromatography.

Results: Ethanol extracts had significantly higher activity than water. Roots showed higher inhibition than leaves and stem. The stem ethanol extracts had an MIC of 10-10 g/ml. Ethanol leaf and root extracts had all the five phytochemicals tested for (alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and terpenoids). Alkaloids were absent in ethanol stem extracts while both alkaloids and flavonoids were absent in the stem and leaf water extracts.

Conclusion: The results showed that the S. cuneifolia leaf and root ethanolic extracts could be used to treat ailments caused by S. aureus. It is recommended that further toxicological testing be done.

Open Access Review Article

Mechanisms of Bacterial Antibiotics Resistance: A Review

Farouk S. Nas

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/37689

Mechanisms of Bacterial Antibiotics Resistance:

A Review

From the history of human population, it can be concluded that the infections has been one of the major cause of disease. It was thought that this hazard should be resolve with the help of antibiotics. However, bacteria have been able to evolved and become resistant to antibiotics. The increase in antibiotic resistance has been attributed to a combination of microbial characteristics, the selective pressure of antibiotic use and social and technical changes that enhance the transmission of resistant organisms. The growing threat from resistant organisms calls for concerted action to prevent the emergence of new resistant strains and the spread of existing ones. The emerging resistance in today’s world has created a major public health dilemma. The major driving force behind the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens is the rapid rise of antibiotic consumption. This trend reflects the growing medicalization of societies worldwide, with its identification of microbial pathogens as the cause of infectious diseases.

Open Access Review Article

Bioremediation of Textile Dyeing Effluent Using Algae - A Review

Maruthanayagam Alaguprathana, Mani Poonkothai

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/37322

The textile industry is a substantial consumer of water and it produces enormous volumes of contaminated water: the most important contaminants are dyes and chemicals. Synthetic dyes have an adverse effect on aquatic ecosystem and their toxic substances have to be removed from the effluent before their discharging. Microbial processes for the treatment of textile wastewater have the advantage of being cost effective, environment friendly and producing less sludge. The mechanism of microbial decolourisation occurs from adsorption, enzymatic degradation or a combination of both. The reductase and oxidase enzymes are involved in the microbial degradation process. The goal of microbial treatment is to decolourise and detoxify the dye contaminated wastewater. Recent studies have been focused on the decolourisation or degradation of azo dyes using algae, yeast, fungi and bacteria. Biosorption is simply defined as the removal of substances from solution by biological material. Such substances can be organic, inorganic, gaseous and soluble or insoluble forms. Biosorption is a property of both living and dead organisms. It acts as an indicator for the removal of pollutant from wastewater because of its efficiency, simplicity, analogous operation to conventional ion exchange technology and availability of biomass. A vast number of low cost adsorbents are recommended for wastewater treatment because of their local availability, technical feasibility, engineering applicability and cost effectiveness. The low cost adsorbents are well perform in dye removal and widely used in industries not only minimize cost but also improve probability with maximum output. Biological decolourisation of textile dyeing effluent is receiving much concern due to cost effective and less regeneration by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants. Algal based remediation technology can provide an excellent resolution for textile wastewater pollution problems. Current status of biological decolourisation and remediation of textile dyeing effluents deals with the most on purpose part on the effects of various parameters like pH, temperature and dye concentrations is briefly discussed in this article.