Open Access Case Report

The Case Report of the Pulmonary Larval Paragonimiasis with Simulating Cancer of the Lung

V. V. Ermilov, A. Agarwal, H. A. Mouhammed

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/38421

The Case Report of the Pulmonary Larval Paragonimiasis with Simulating Cancer of the Lung

Larval Paragonimiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the larvae of the pulmonary fluke. In contrast to the classical Paragonimiasis, larval occurs with a large number of clinical manifestations. However, this fact only complicates the diagnosis of larval Paragonimiasis, as the abundance of clinical manifestations leads to false diagnosis of other diseases. Another distinguishing feature of this form of Paragonimiasis is the propensity to generalization and to imitation of a clinical picture of malignant neoplasms. A 66-year-old patient was infected with a larval form of Paragonimiasis, with invaded lung, pleura, heart, liver, right kidney, spleen, stomach and small omentum. Diagnostic measures performed could not give an accurate idea of ​​the nature of the disease, so a diagnostic thoracoscopy was performed and urgent biopsy from region of dissemination was taken, which showed a glandular cancer of the lower lobe of the lung. This circumstance became the reason for performing atypical resection of the affected part, which was done, but on the second day of the postoperative period the patient died as a result of Pulmonary Embolism (PE). The cause of the disease is chronic pulmonary generalized Paragonimiasis (cyst and pneumosclerotic stages) with neoplastic syndrome.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Assessment of Swimming Pools from Selected Hotels in Osogbo Metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria

F. A. Ajadi, O. A. Thonda

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/38397

Microbial Assessment of Swimming Pools from Selected Hotels in Osogbo Metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria

The presence of microorganisms in swimming pool water is of concern today and health threat because they have been shown to cause infections especially gastroenterititis infections with probable transfer of these organisms from swimmers into the swimming pool. The microbiological qualities of five swimming pools in Osogbo was studied for the wet and dry seasons. Bacterial isolates were identified based on morphological and biochemical methods with the aid of Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. The Fungal isolates were identified using lactophenol cotton blue method. The heterotrophic bacterial population count in swimming pool water samples ranged from 1.7 x102 cfu/ml to 3.6 x 102 cfu/ml to 5.2 x 102 cfu/ml. A total of 43 bacterial species which belonged to seven genera, and comprising Pseudomonas sp, Klebsiella sp, Aeromonas sp, Citrobacter sp, Shigella sp, Proteus sp and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. The fungal population during the study ranged between 1.2x 102 cfu/ml and 3.9x102 cfu/ml. Twenty five (25) fungi species which belonged to ten genera including Absidia cylindrospora, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus repens, Cephalosporium corda Cladosporium, Fusarium sp, Monotospora altissima, Penicillium citrinum, Schizophyta minuta and Trichophyton sp were isolated. The coliforms isolated were Shigella dysentriae, Shigella paradysentriae, Shigella sonnei and Citrobacter freundii. The isolates were resistant to augmentin (95.3%), cotrimoxazole (93.7%), amoxicillin and nitrofurantoin (83.7%), tetracycline (72.1%), gentamicin (62.8%) and ofloxacin, (0%). The study concluded that swimming pools are contaminated with different microbial organisms of potential diseases with capable of causing diseases/infections or potentially pathogenic to man, and this requires adequate care and proper monitoring of swimming pools.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Effects of Garlic Extracts against Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Clinical Specimens

V. U. Olugbue, V. O. Nwaugo, R. A. Onyeagba, S. S. Ogundapo, M. O. Okata, I. Oko

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/38115

Antimicrobial Effects of Garlic Extracts against Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Isolates from Clinical Specimens

Aim: To assess the antibacterial potentials of Allium sativum and their interaction with antibiotics against clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Study Design: The study is designed to investigate the antibacterial activity of Allium sativum extract and its interactive potential to enhance the activity of antibiotics against multidrug resistant S. aureus.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted between May, 2015 and June, 2016. This study was performed at the Microbiology laboratory of the Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Extraction was done using sterile water, acetone and methanol. The extracts were evaporated to dryness using rotary evaporator. Antibacterial susceptibility testing was carried out using the agar well diffusion method. The macrobroth dilution method was used to determine the MIC of the methanol extracts. Checkerboard method was used to determine the interaction between extracts and antibiotics.

Results: Aqueous and methanol extracts of Allium sativum had inhibition zone range of 10 ± 1.50 to 17 ± 1.50 mm and 7 ± 1.05 to 14 ± 0.95 mm respectively, at concentration range of 25 to 200 mg/ml. Acetone extract had inhibition range of 5 ± 0.50 to 11 ± 0.50 mm. Methanol and acetone extracts had the same inhibition zone (14 ± 0.79 mm) diameter against the S. aureus isolates at 200 mg/ml. There were no significant difference found between inhibition zone diameter of methanol/acetone extract (P = 0.50), methanol/aqueous extracts (P = 0.97) and acetone/aqueous extracts (P =0.48) against the test bacteria. The correlation analysis done between inhibition zone diameter and concentration of A. sativum recorded a positive correlation (r) ranging between 0.84 and 0.89. The combination of methanol extracts of garlic (MEG) plus ceftazidime (Caz) and MEG plus erythromycin (Ery) showed synergistic interaction in three and four of the isolates respectively. Antagonistic interaction was recorded in the combination of MEG plus cefuroxime in one isolate whereas it was recorded in three isolates in the interaction of MEG and ciprofloxacin. The synergistic interaction stood at 28.0% and antagonism 16.0%. The combination of ½ x MIC of MEG plus ½ x MIC Caz against S. aureus showed bactericidal activity against the isolates at 12 hours resulting in a 4.25 log10 cfu/ml reduction whereas the combinations of ½ x MIC of MEG plus ½ x MIC of Ery showed bactericidal activity after 8 hours with a 3.13 log10 cfu/ml decrease. The net reduction in colony counts was observed consistently between 12 – 24 hours.

Conclusion: The result of this study showed that methanol extract of A. sativum possesses bactericidal activities against S. aureus. In addition, the methanol extract may be a potential source of resistance modifying compounds that can potentially improve the performance of antibiotics in the treatment of multidrug resistant S. aureus infections. There is need to isolate the specific active agent(s) involved in the potentiation for drug compounding.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Adult Patients with Gastric Symptoms Attending Public Health and Diagnostic Institute, Northwest University Kano, Nigeria

F. A. Umar, S. A. Abdullahi, Y. Muhammad, I. Bashiru, B. F. Sonyo

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/38542

Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Adult Patients with Gastric Symptoms Attending Public Health and Diagnostic Institute, Northwest University Kano, Nigeria

Infection with Helicobacter pylori has been recognized as global problem due to its high prevalence across the world, predominantly in developing countries. The study aimed at determining the seroprevalence of H. pylori in adult patients with mean age 37.5 years (ranging from 18 – 57) presented with gastritis and other symptoms of peptic ulcer in Public health and diagnostic institute, Northwest University, Kano. A total of 419 patients (214 men and 178 women) were screened for               H. pylori using rapid diagnostic test kit (Micropoint, China) according to manufacturer’s instructions. A seropevalence of 69.0% was recorded with male having the highest prevalence of 74.3% and 61.8% among female participants. Based on different age groups, 18-27 have the highest prevalence of 44.9% while 48-57 accounts for the least number of positive results (14.9%).  

Conclusively, this study found a high seroprevalence of H. pylori among the study population. Therefore, advance antigen-based methods of H. pylori identification should be employed for effective diagnosis and management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Xpert® MTB/RIF Assay and Microscopy for Diagnosing Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Butembo, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Gabriel Kambale Bunduki, Adélard Kalima Nzanzu, Alexandre Amini Mitamo

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/38667

Evaluation of the Xpert® MTB/RIF Assay and Microscopy for Diagnosing Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Butembo, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Xpert® MTB/RIF assay comparing to the acid-fast smear microscopy for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Butembo, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Methodology: This was a retrospective study analyzing pulmonary tuberculosis cases that were diagnosed using both the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay and microscopy. Secondary data were collected from monthly report from the Microbiology department at GHR Katwa, Butembo, for the time period of February 2015 to September 2017.

Results: Three hundred and seventy-two specimens were collected from patients suspected of pulmonary tuberculosis. Of these, 98 (26.3%) were found to be positive for MTB by Xpert® MTB/RIF assay, out of which 73 (19.6%) were also found to be positive by microscopy. The remainder was negative. Two (2.04%) cases of resistance to rifampicin were detected. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Xpert assay were respectively 83.6%, 87.6%, 62.2% and 95.6%.

Conclusion: The use of the Xpert® MTB/RIF coupled with microscopy as part of routine assay, permits rapid diagnosis of pulmonary MTB and detection of rifampicin resistance. It may help in the epidemiological control of pulmonary MTB.