Open Access Original Research Article

Evidence on Antimicrobial Efficacy of Commercial Toothpaste

M. Fazlina, A. Z. Nur

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/38682

This study aims to determine the antimicrobial activity of different brand of commercially available toothpaste in Malaysian outlet, namely Colgate-Total, Mu’min, Tesco and Safi against selected oral microbiome. All the different toothpastes brand were tested for their antimicrobial activity against five oral pathogens namely Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli by using agar well diffusion method. Colgate-Total brand has the highest mean zone of inhibition (Z.O.I) on the test organisms (30.7 mm) followed by Safi brand (29.2 mm) and Tesco brand (12.5 mm) while Mu’min brand showed the least activity on the test micro-organisms (2.4 mm). The present work found Colgate-total brand toothpaste more effective in controlling pathogenic oral microflora as compared to other brand of toothpaste.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Metallo-beta-lactamase Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an Abidjan Hospital, Côte d’Ivoire

Karine M. K. Gba, Nathalie K. Guessennd, Nicole P. Nieko Dangui Makaya, Eric J. Tahou, Fernique Konan, Simon-Pierre A. N’guetta

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/38792

Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa has emerged as a threat to hospital infection control, due to its ability of multi-drug resistance. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of MBL producing P. aeruginosa in an Abidjan Hospital, Côte d'Ivoire.

Methods: A prospective study was undertaken to detect MBLs in P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from various clinical samples. A total of 88 strains were screened for imipenem resistance by the disc diffusion method. Detection of MBLs were further done by phenotypic methods, using imipenem-EDTA disk synergy (DST) test and combined disk test (CDT).

Results: Out of 88 isolates, 14 isolates (15.9%) were imipenem resistant. Out 14 imipenem resistant P. aeruginosa strains, 11 were positive for MBL production by CDT and by DST.

Conclusion: Majority (78.6%) of imipenem resistant P. aeruginosa were MBL positive. The prevalence of MBL producing-P. aeruginosa increased from 10.4% in 2011 to 12.5% in 2015 in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Early detection of carbapenemases and MBL can be performed in hospitals and laboratories from the following rapid and less expensive tests.

Open Access Original Research Article

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage among Surgical Patients, Patient Relatives and Healthcare Workers in a Teaching Hospital in Uyo, Southsouth Nigeria

Ifunanya P. Ohagim, Eno E. Nyong, Anietie E. Moses

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/39020

Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the major bacteria pathogens implicated in hospital and community-associated infections.

Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and multidrug-resistant (MDR) pattern of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage among surgical patients, patient relatives and healthcare workers (HCW) in a tertiary health facility in Uyo-Nigeria.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional hospital-based study.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo-Nigeria, between April and October 2016.

Methodology: Swab samples were collected from the anterior nares of 200 participants and cultured using standard bacteriological methods for the isolation of S. aureus. MRSA strains were identified phenotypically using both Oxacillin and Cefoxitin discs diffusion methods while possession of the mecA gene was detected by PCR method.

Results: Overall, S. aureus and MRSA carriage rates among the participants were 102 (51.0%) and 22 (11.0%), respectively. Population-specific carriage rates of S. aureus and MRSA among surgical patients (n=65) were 41 (63.1%) and 15 (23.1%); patient relatives (n=65), 22 (33.8%) and 4 (6.2%), while HCW (n=70) were 39 (55.7%) and 3 (4.7%), respectively. The rate of HCW MRSA carriage increased as year of service increased but increment was not statistically significant. All the 22 MRSA isolates were MDR and highly resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as Ciprofloxacin (86.4%), Trimethoprim/Sulphamethoxazole (81.8%), Tetracycline (77.3%), Erythromycin (72.7%) and Gentamycin (68.1%). Eighteen (82%) of the MRSA strains possessed the mecA gene. Vancomycin-resistant strains (VRSA) were 2 (9.1%). MRSA strains sharing similar drug-resistant combination were observed among surgical patients, patient relatives and HCW either within or in related wards.

Conclusion: The high nasal carriage of MRSA and high frequency of MDR strains among surgical patients in this study emphasize the need for regular surveillance and strengthening of basic infection control measures in hospitals. The use of Vancomycin as drug of choice in MRSA therapy is still desirable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Chlorhexidine and Cetylpyridinium Chloride against a Mixture of Two Species of Oral Streptococci

So Yeon Lee, Si Young Lee

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/38780

Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Chlorhexidine and Cetylpyridinium Chloride against a Mixture of Two Species of Oral Streptococci

Background and Objectives: Although bacteria in plaques are present as a mixed population comprising various species, mechanisms underlying differences in susceptibility between the mixed population of bacteria and each individual bacterium to antimicrobial agents is yet unknown. In this study, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride were determined against various streptococci isolated from the human oral cavity. Then, changes in susceptibility of planktonic bacteria to chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride were investigated by mixing each of the bacteria in different combinations.

Materials and Methods: MIC and MBC were measured by the micro-dilution method according to the standards recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).

Results: The MIC and MBC values of cetylpyridinium chloride against each bacterium tended to be high or more than the high susceptibility values for the two mixed bacteria in all combinations. Most of the MIC and MBC values of chlorhexidine against individual bacterium were higher than those against the mixtures of two bacteria. However, in some combinations, susceptibility values for two mixed bacteria were low or lesser than the low values for the individual bacterium.

Conclusion: When two antimicrobials were applied to mixed bacteria, cetylpyridinium chloride was observed to inhibit the growth of all combinations, with higher MIC and MBC values, whereas chlorhexidine was observed to inhibit the growth to varying degrees, with a different MIC and MBC values.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Quality of Water in Meet Khamis Drinking Water Plant, Egypt: Detection of Bacterial Pathogens and Contamination Sources

M. M. Bahgat, W. I. A. Saber, M. R. Zaki

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/38782

Bacteriological Quality of Water in Meet Khamis Drinking Water Plant, Egypt: Detection of Bacterial Pathogens and Contamination Sources

This study aims to evaluating the bacteriological quality of water in four areas. Locations under investigation were: (1) The River Nile water at Damietta Branch, which used as source water for Meet Khamis Water Treatment Plant, (2) the sedimentation tank in the treatment plant, (3) the final product of Meek Khamis Water Treatment Plant and (4) samples from the distribution system. Water samples from area 1, 2 and 3 were taken in the period from January 2015 till December 2015. Bacteriological analyses involved total coliforms (TC), faecal coliforms (FC), faecal streptococci (FS) and some pathogenic bacteria. The results showed that total coliforms (TC) ranged from 31667 to 78667 cfu/100 ml, faecal coliform (FC) from 2200 to 8200 cfu/100 ml and finally faecal streptococci (FS) ranged from 1200 to 2867 cfu/100 ml. Densities of these bacterial indicators decreased dramatically from raw water to sedimentation tank and completely disappeared in the treated water. One hundred and thirty-nine bacterial isolates obtained from the previously mentioned locations were identified using biochemical reaction tests. This included, the following suggested genera: Esherichia coli (25.9%), Klebsiella (12.2%), salmonella (18.7%), Citrobacter (0.72%), Proteus (16.5%), Shigella (24.5%), Serratia (1.4%). The obtained results indicated that, the River Nile water was subjected to sewage pollution; however, Meet Khamis water treatment station had the ability to completely remove it.