Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Optimization of Cellulase from Penicillium sp. Using Corn-cob and Pawpaw Fibre as Substrates

Francis Sopuruchukwu Ire, Augustine Onwuchekwa Okoli, Victor Ezebuiro

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/39227

Production and Optimization of Cellulase from Penicillium sp. Using Corn-cob and Pawpaw

Fibre as Substrates

Aim: This study reports the production and optimization of cellulase from Penicillium sp. using corn-cob (CC) and pawpaw fibre (PF) as substrates.

Methods: Nine fungal isolates, obtained from compost soil, were screened for cellulolytic activity. Isolate CPF-1, based on its ability to give the highest zones of clearance and cellulolytic activity, was selected. CPF-1 was identified as Penicillium sp. based on its cultural and morphological characteristics.  Cellulase activity was determined by the DNS method on Congo red agar plate. Effects of temperature, pH and metal ions (Zn2+, Hg2+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Co2+) on crude cellulase activity and stability were studied using two substrates (corn-cob and pawpaw fibre) by solid state fermentation.

Results: Data obtained from the study revealed that the optimal pH and temperature values for the production of crude cellulase by the Penicillium sp. were pH 5 and 30°C, respectively; with maximum cellulase activity of 37.32 IU/mL. Optimum cellulase productivity of 15.787 IU/mL was obtained with CC as the substrate while 2.141 IU/mL was obtained with PF substrate after 1 h of fermentation. The cellulase produced was most stable at pH 5 and temperature of 40°C. Fe2+ and Co2+ were able to stimulate cellulase activity whereas the other ions inhibited the enzyme activity.

Conclusion: This study has revealed the potentials of corn-cob and pawpaw fibre as substrates for cellulase production by Penicillium sp. through solid state fermentation (SSF); with corn-cob as the most suitable substrate. Considering that these substrates are readily available, they present cheaper substrate alternatives for potential large-scale cellulase production.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Prophylactic Evaluation of the Antiplasmodial Property of Ethanol and Hot Water Extracts of Milky Mushroom (Calocybe indica)

F. O. Omoya, O. Oyedirin

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/39198

In vivo Prophylactic Evaluation of the Antiplasmodial Property of Ethanol and Hot Water Extracts of Milky Mushroom (Calocybe indica)

Aims: Calocybe indica is commonly known as the milky mushroom and is one of the protein-rich mushrooms that have high medicinal property. Malaria is endemic in Nigeria with 97% of the population of 170 million living in areas of high malaria risk. Hence, in vivo prophylactic antiplasmodial property of milky mushroom extracts was evaluated.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Akure between February and October, 2017.

Methodology: The experimental mice were fed for four days with different concentrations of the hot water and ethanol extracts before infecting them with Plasmodium berghei (NK 65 species) and observed for another three days.

Results: The results showed that the infection caused the body temperature and weight to reduce from 36.8±0.10°C to 35.1±0.45°C and 17.23±0.33 g to 16.15±0.43 g respectively. The parasitemia count 24 hours after infection with P. berghei on a group that were given the extracts before the infection showed that the extracts had a prophylactic effect on the parasite. Comparatively, the group that was infected without prior treatment recorded 326 parasites per field, the group treated with 400 mg/ml of the ethanol extract of the milky mushroom had two parasites per view. The P. berghei infection also caused a significant decrease in the packed cell volume (PCV) of the mice. Comparatively, the mushroom ethanol extract at 400 mg/ml increased the PCV to 44.50±0.67% from 35.25±1.33% in the control group. The group infected with P. berghei without prior treatment (group F) had less than 30% PCV.

Conclusion: Calocybe indica (milky mushroom) extracts used in this research exerted high prophylactic property against Plasmodium berghei in vivo and caused a significant increase in packed cell volume of the experimental mice. Therefore, milky mushroom could be incorporated into daily food to offer prophylaxis against malaria parasite infections that are on the increase globally.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential of Microbial Solubilization of Rock Phosphate for Use in Sustainable Agriculture: Does Biochar Application Enhance Microbial Solubilization?

Sasanika Jayawardhane, Neelamanie Yapa

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/32544

Potential of Microbial Solubilization of Rock Phosphate for Use in Sustainable Agriculture:

Does Biochar Application Enhance Microbial Solubilization?

The present study was carried out to investigate the strategies for microbial solubilization of Eppawala rock phosphate in Sri Lanka as an alternative to chemical acidulation by using biochar and microbial inoculants. A pot experiment was carried out in the plant house at Faculty of Applied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Mihintale, Sri Lanka. The treatments were different combinations of field soil, biochar, mycorrhizae and Pseudomonas fluorescens with rock phosphate (RP). The experimental treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design (CRBD) with eight replicates and the treatment means were compared by the Tukey’s test (p<0.05). The soil available phosphorus (P) and leaf P were estimated after 120 days of growing maize in pots. Total bacterial and fungal counts of the soil and mycorrhizal colonization were also estimated. Results showed that the highest available soil phosphorus was observed in biochar, mycorrhizae and P. fluorescens addition with 3% RP and highest leaf phosphorus was observed in biochar and mycorrhizae with 3% RP. The addition of biochar to the soil containing RP caused a significant increase (p<0.05) of solubilized P in soil. These results suggested that biochar can be used to enhance microbial RP solubilization and mycorrhizae inoculants to increase P uptake. Significantly high bacterial count and fungal count were observed in biochar, P. fluorescens and RP added and mycorrhizae, P. fluorescens and RP treatments respectively. Greater efficiency of P solubilizing bacteria has shown with the addition of biochar and through co-inoculation with mycorrhizae. Findings of this research increase the prospects of using biochar and P solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) including P. fluorescens and mycorrhizae for RP solubilization.      

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiplasmodial Activities of Methanol Leaf Extract of Tithonia diversifolia, and It’s Toxicity Effect on Swiss Albino Mice

A. Agbadaola, W. O. Tanimowo

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/38996

Antiplasmodial Activities of Methanol Leaf Extract of Tithonia diversifolia, and It’s Toxicity Effect on Swiss Albino Mice

Due the ceaseless use of plants in the treatment of diseases by indigenous people of various countries and continents, it is necessary to evaluate possible health risks associated with the consumption of crude preparation of various parts of plants. This study has been aimed at evaluating the antiplasmodial activities of methanol extract of dried leaf of Tithonia diversifolia and its toxicity effect using swiss albino mice. The antiplasmodal effect of methanol extract of Tithonial diversifolia were evaluated in swiss albino mice infected with chloroquine sensitive plasmodium berghei. Result showed a dose dependent blood schizonticidal activity. The in vivo antiplasmodial effect of the extract (100,200, and 400 mg/kg.body weight) against P. berghei showed significant increase (p<0.05) in dose dependent activity for curative test, significant increase in percentage parasitaemia clearance as 66.39%, 70.40%, and 78.94% respectively. Extract showed a significant increase in the white blood cell and red blood cell (P<0.05), also a significant increase (p<0.05) was observed in potassium ion and alkaline phosphatase concentration. The result of this study suggests that the extract have a considerable antimalaria property but the adverse effect on the function of liver and kidney, if used indiscriminately may be lethal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Tigernut-Ogi Incorporated into Basal Feed as a Potential Animal Growth Enhancer Using Wistar Albino Rats as Experimental Animal

N. Maduka, F. S. Ire

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/38662

Studies on Tigernut-Ogi Incorporated into Basal Feed as a Potential Animal Growth Enhancer Using Wistar Albino Rats as Experimental Animal

This study investigated the effect of using tigernut-ogi incorporated into basal feed as a potential animal growth enhancer. Tigernut-ogi in the ratio 70:30 blended with basal feed (Top feed brand, growers mash) in the ratio 10:90, 30:70 and 50:50 was administered on G1A, G2A and G3A grouped rats orally infected with Escherichia coli as well as non-infected G1B, G2B and G3B grouped rats, respectively for 28 Days. Non-infected grouped rats fed 100% basal feed was the control. This animal feeding experiment revealed that Feed intake (FI) and Average daily feed consumption (ADFC) of the grouped rats reduced with increased proportion of tigernut-ogi incorporated into their feed ration. Meanwhile, increase in proportion of tigernut-ogi in the feed ration administered on both the infected and non-infected grouped rats resulted in slower increase in rat body weight than the control. Tigernut-ogi played a significant role towards improvement of Feed efficiency ratio (FER), Feed conversion ratio (FCR), Specific growth rate (SGR) and Protein efficiency ratio (PER) of infected grouped rats whereas the quality of the feed ration (less quantity tigernut-ogi) positively influenced FER, FCR and SGR of non-infected grouped rats. Average weight gain (AWG) of the grouped rats was significantly affected by orally infecting the rats with Escherichia coli. Among the infected and non-infected grouped rats, G1A and G1B rat group recorded the highest body weight 233.86 g and 259.71 g, respectively whereas the control was 278.14 g. There was no significant difference between G2A and G2B grouped rats in terms of SGR and FER. In conclusion, tigernut-ogi incorporated into basal feed in the ratio 30:70 and 10:90 could suitably be used as growth enhancer in infected and non-infected rats, respectively.