Open Access Short Research Article

The Antimicrobial Activity of Sclerotia of Pleurotus tuberregium (Osu) on Some Clinical Isolates

H. O. Stanley, D. B. Onwuna, C. J. Ugboma

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/39664

The Antimicrobial Activity of Sclerotia of Pleurotus tuberregium (Osu) on Some Clinical Isolates

This study was carried out to determine the medicinal potential of the sclerotia of Pleurotus tuberregium on some clinical isolates. The method employed for this test was the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method. The ethanol extract showed some level of potency with zones of inhibition: Klebsiella sp (21 mm±0.2); Bacillus sp (15 mm±0.4); Staphylococcus aureus (13 mm±0.2); Candida albicans (7 mm± 0.1). Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus sp were not susceptible to the ethanol extract. There was no observed level of susceptibility when hot and cold water extracts of sclerotia of Pleurotus tuberregium were used on the selected test organisms. Ethanol extract of sclerotia of P. tuberregium showed a good therapeutic outcome with its inhibitive effect on clinical isolates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extended-spectrum β-lactamase Occurrence among Gram-negative Bacilli Isolated from Urine of Apparently Healthy Individuals at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

N. Torimiro

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/38977

Extended-spectrum β-lactamase Occurrence among Gram-negative Bacilli Isolated from Urine of Apparently Healthy Individuals at

Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Aims: This study determines the carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from the urine of apparently healthy individuals at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Study Design: The study was designed to evaluate ESBL occurrence among GNB isolated from urine samples of recruited subjects at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Methodology: Mid-stream urine samples were collected from 70 apparently healthy and consenting participants. The samples were inoculated onto MacConkey agar and incubated at 37°C; the isolates were identified using standard methods. The antibiotic susceptibility profile and ESBL test were performed using standard methods.

Results: A total of 47 (67.1%) monomicrobial GNB were isolated. Escherichia coli (15, 31.9%) was the most predominant isolate identified. All isolates were multi-drug resistant; β-lactamase was produced in 17 (36.2%) isolates and ESBL, in only two isolates. ESBL-producing isolates showed resistance to non-β-lactam antibiotics.

Conclusion: The isolates were multi-drug resistant, and the occurrence of ESBL-producing GNB isolated from the urine was observed. This study shows the complexity of antibiotic resistance and highlights the need for surveillance to address the serious issue of multi-drug resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Ocimum gratissimum and Zingiber officianale on Bacteria Isolated from the Environment

O. O. Ayepola, O. A. Onile-Ere, T. Odeleye, N. D. Adibe

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/39941

Background: Antibiotic resistance continues to be an important public health issue and the environment constitutes a major source of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This is because large amounts of antibiotics are deposited into the environment as a result of several human activities.

Aim: In this study, the antibacterial properties of Ocimum gratissimum and Zingiber officianale were evaluated against bacteria present in effluents from a University sewage treatment plant, health center and horticultural garden.

Methods: Enteric bacterial species and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated and assessed for resistance to different antibiotics. In addition, the ethanolic extracts of two plants Ocimum gratissimum and Zingiber officianale were tested for their antimicrobial activity against some selected antibiotic-resistant bacteria from the environment.

Results: A total of 215 organisms including 76 Escherichia coli, 56 S. aureus, 40 Klebsiella spp, 28 Salmonella spp and 15 Shigella spp, were isolated with more than half possessing resistance to at least one of the antibiotics tested. 57% of S. aureus isolates were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested with the most resistance recorded against penicillin (82.22%) and Erythromycin (91.28%). 53.22% of all enterobacterial isolates possessed resistance to at least one antibiotic with Salmonella (91.28%) and E. coli (61.15%) as the most resistant. High levels of antibiotic resistance (65%) were found among isolates from the University horticultural garden. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides in both plant fractions. Both plants showed antimicrobial activity against most of the isolates tested with Ocimum gratissimum showing better activity than Zingiber officianale at concentrations lower than 25 mg/ml.

Conclusion: This study adds credence to the local application of both plants as herbal remedies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck [Orange] and Citrus aurantifolia (Cristm.) Swingle [Lime] Stem from Bacteria Associated with Dental Caries

M. K. Nata’ala, M. H. Dalhat, B. S. Omoye, A. A. Isah, S. Kabiru, I. Bashiru, F. A. Umar

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/39134

Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck [Orange] and Citrus aurantifolia (Cristm.) Swingle [Lime] Stem from Bacteria Associated with Dental Caries

Background: The use of chewing stick as tooth cleanser by Arabs and now by most Muslims all around the globe has long been established. Stems of different trees have been used in this process. Stems of Citrus sinensis (Orange) and Citrus aurantifolia (Lime) are used in Nigeria in cleansing teeth. Few attempts were made to screen the antimicrobial activity of the stems of the trees on microorganisms isolated from teeth.

Aim of the Study: The aim was to determine the phytoconstituent and the antimicrobial activity of Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantifolia on organism’s isolated from human teeth.

Materials and Methods: Phytoconstituents of the aqueous and ethanolic extract of the stems of Lime and Orange tree were determined using standard methods. The antimicrobial activity of the extract against some microorganisms isolated from teeth was determined using agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined using standard method.

Results: Phytochemical screening of stems of the two plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, anthraquinones and carbohydrates. Highest zone of inhibition of 7 mm and 10 mm was recorded on the ethanolic extracts of orange and lime tree stems on Staphylococcus. aureus respectively. No activity was recorded on both the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the trees on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MIC and MBC of 59 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml for the ethanolic extracts of lime tree stem on S. aureus and Proteus mirabilis were recorded. For the orange tree, MIC and MBC of 25 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml were recorded for the ethanolic extracts were recorded on S. aureus

Conclusion: Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantifolia were shown to be active against some of the microorganisms isolated from human teeth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Blanching and Oil Marination on Bacteriological Quality of Tomato

S. G. Ibrahim, A. S. Isa, A. Yusuf

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/38965

Tomato has suffered a great yield loss owing to microbial contaminations, especially fungi and bacteria. This study was carried out to know the effect of blanching and oil marination on the total bacterial count and isolates present in tomato. Fresh tomato samples were collected from Kasuwan Daji, Sokoto state. The tomato was divided into three groups; two groups were processed into blanched and un-blanched marinated into oil. The bacteria analyses of both the fresh and preserved stored samples were carried out at day 1 for fresh and after 2 days interval for preserved tomatoes for a period of 14 days. The bacterial load of the fresh sample was 5.06 ± 0.900Log10cfu/g and that of the blanched sample ranges from 4.63 ± 0.702 to 5.31 ± 0.915 Log10cfu/g while that of the un-blanched sample ranges from 5.31 ± 0.950 to 5.66 ± 0.960 Log10cfu/g. There is no significant difference in the total bacterial load of both the blanched and un-blanched samples with that of the fresh P>0.05, but load increases with time while the bacterial load of the un-blanched sample is higher compared to the fresh and also increases with time. The pH value of the blanched sample over the 14 days ranges from 7.00 to 6.52 while that of the un-blanched sample ranges from 6.90 to 5.92. A total of three bacteria were isolated from the samples, they are Bacillus lacterosporus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus hominis. Bacillus lacterosporus and Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from the fresh sample, Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from the blanched sample while Staphylococcus hominis and Bacillus lacterosporus were isolated from the un-blanched sample. Blanching is effective in reducing microbial load and increase the shelf life of tomato coupled with oil marination.