Open Access Original Research Article

Laboratory-Scale Bioremediation of Crude Oil Polluted Soil Using a Consortia of Rhizobacteria Obtained from Plants in Gokana-Ogoni, Rivers State

Orhorhoro Emmanuel, Effiong Enobong, Abu Gideon

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/38708

Laboratory-Scale Bioremediation of Crude Oil Polluted Soil Using a Consortia of Rhizobacteria Obtained from Plants in Gokana-Ogoni, Rivers State

Background: The use of consortia of rhizobacterial flora in bioaugmentation of autochthonous flora cannot be over-emphasized.

Aim: This study sought to assess the potentials of rhizobacterial obtained from pre-exposed plants to crude oil pollution at Bodo creeks, Gokana-Ogoni, Nigeria.

Methods: In this 4-weeks study, polluted soil was spiked using a soil auger while three different plants were randomly obtained from the study area and aseptically transported to the environmental microbiology laboratory, University of Port Harcourt. Baseline physicochemical and microbiological evaluation was performed on the soil samples. Biochemical and morphological features were employed in the characterization of the isolates. Bioremediation monitoring was performed on spiked soil of total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of 17,000 mg/kg within 14 days of the study. Percentage degradation of the crude oil was evaluated.

Results: The three plants, Schoenoplectus senegalensis, Fuirena umbellata and Cyperus tuberosus from whose rhizobacteria were randomly obtained at different points at a depth of 10-15 cm. pH in the untreated soil was observed to increase from 6.38-6.48 after 14 days exposure time. The electrical conductivity in the treated increased from 186.2-188 µs/cm. The Nitrates in the soil for the bacterial treatments alone fell from 3.42-2.51 mg/kg. Phosphates for the bacteria consortium decreased from 23.8-22.57 mg/kg. Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacterial Count increased from 4.3 x 105 cfu/g at day 0 to 2.7 x 106 cfu/g at day 7 and 1.7 x 106 cfu/g at day 14. Total Heterotrophic Bacterial Count increased in the control from 2.0 x105 cfu/g at day 7 to 3 x 106 cfu/g at day 14. Bacterial isolates were Kingella sp, Bacillus sp and Pseudomonas sp., Corynebacterium sp, Klebsiella sp, Staphylococcus sp, and Bacterioides sp. Bacillus sp and Pseudomonas sp are most represented with 32% and 23% respectively. TPH concentration decreased from the baseline value to 13647 mg/kg in 7 days and further decreased to 9034 mg/kg at day 14. The PAHs concentration decreased from 2998.71 at day 0 to 1986.43 and 1352 mg/kg at day 14.

Conclusion: Biomining potential of rhizobacterial as observed in this study suggest a limitless application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Rotavirus Infection among Children Less than Five Years of Age in Abuja Satellite Towns, Nigeria

Ohiri Uzoamaka Chukwuma, Ebhodaghe Blessing Itohan

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/39580

Background: Rotavirus infection is a major cause of gastroenteritis in children less than 5 years of age. Its symptoms include diarrhea, fever, abdominal pains and vomiting which often time results in dehydration and metabolic changes in the body.  Transmission is mainly orofeacal and sometimes by respiratory droplets. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of rotavirus and risk factors in children less than 5 years in Abuja satellite towns, Nigeria. 

Methods: This was a cross – sectional study carried out from October 2013-September 2014 involving 144 children below the age of 5 years. Children who presented with acute gastroenteritis were recruited for the study. Watery or semisolid stool samples were collected from patients using a sterile spatula and two aliquots of the each stool sample was made which was thereafter stored at -95°C until assayed. The ELISA microplate assay kit (Oxoid, Bassingstoke-Hants, United Kingdom) was used to detect the rotavirus antigen in each sample. Descriptive and inferential statistics of data was done using SPSS (Chicago, IL, SPSS Inc., 2007). The variables were compared using Chi-Square and fisher’s exact test at 95% CI and p-value less than or equal to 0.05 considered statistically significant.

Results: A total of 144 children, aged between 1 month and 60 months with gastroenteritis participated in this study. They comprised of 82 males and 62 females. Of these, 25% of the patients were positive for human rotavirus antigen in their stool samples. The distribution of rotavirus infection among the FCT area councils showed 12(8.3%) in Gwagwalada, 8(5.6%)  Kubwa while 7(4.9%), 5(3.5%), and 4(2.8%) Nyanya, Bwari and karishi respectively. Analysis of the age distribution of children affected by rotavirus showed that the highest prevalence of rotavirus was in children aged between 0-10 months old, 20(55.56%). The results showed that 36(25%) of the children were infected with rotavirus and none of the patients were vaccinated.  Seasonal changes experienced revealed that infection starts from October and fluctuates between November and March, reaching its peak by April.

Conclusion: The results of this study revealed a high prevalence of 25% rotavirus infection among the study population with high infection rate occurring in children under 10 months of age. Vaccination could be vital in preventing or reducing rotavirus infection in children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Antibiogram of Bacteria Isolated from Surgical Wounds of Patients Attending Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida Specialist Hospital Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

I. Abubakar, D. B. Maikaje, A. A. Orukotan, E. N. Gana, H. A. Ibrahim

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/37463

Characterization and Antibiogram of Bacteria Isolated from Surgical Wounds of Patients Attending Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida Specialist Hospital Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

Surgical wounds are one of the major sources through which bacteria pathogens gain access into internal tissues. The study is therefore aimed at determining the proximate bacteria associated with infected surgical wounds of patients attending Ibrahim Badamasi Babagida specialist hospital Minna, Niger state, North central, Nigeria. Fifty samples were collected from the patient using sterile swab stick, inoculated on the prepared nutrient agar, incubated for 24 hours, morphologically observed, biochemically characterized and investigated for antibiotic sensitivity. The result for the proximate analysis indicated that thirty samples were contaminated with bacteria. Out of the 30 positive samples, three Gram negative bacteria which include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella ozaenae, and four Gram positive bacteria which include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae and Clostridium perfringens were isolated. The result revealed that Staphylococcus aureus has the highest prevalence, isolated from 14 samples (46.67%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, isolated from 6 samples (20%), both Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus pyogenes were isolated from 3 (10%) different samples each, Escherichia coli was isolated only from 2 samples (6.67%), whereas Clostridium perfringens and Klebsiella ozaenae were isolated from just a sample (3.33%) each. From the susceptibility analysis, Klebsiella ozaenae showed the highest percentage of susceptibility and resistance to the antibiotic disk among the Gram negative while Clostridium perfringens showed the highest percentage of the sensitivity to the antibiotic disc out of the Gram positive bacteria isolates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Assessment of Students' Pen

Abubakar Idris, Agholor Kin, N. Gana Enoch, Abdullahi Yahaya Makama

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/38403

Bacteriological Assessment of Students' Pen

Pen, as a writing instrument that is passed from hand to hand, is likely to be contaminated with diseases causing microorganisms especially if handled with unclean hands or kept in dirty surroundings. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of bacterial contamination among the pen of students. 50 samples of the pen were collected randomly from students in Unity Secondary School Zungeru, Niger State, Nigeria, under aseptic conditions and were brought into the laboratory for analysis. Cooked meat media, MacConkey, and nutrient agar were used in quantification and isolation respectively. The bacterial were further sub cultured, identified and characterized by growing them on MacConkey and Chocolate agar, observing their morphological characteristic then Gram reaction and biochemical test were used for confirmation. Out of the 50 samples collected, 40(90%) were contaminated with different bacterial species which includes Streptococci sp. Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Clostridium Sp., Neisseria Sp., and Klebsiella Sp., and 3.2x105, 5.0x105, 2.6x105, 1.8x105, 1.2x105 and 1.6x105 CFU/g respectively, with Staphylococcus aureus and Neisseria Sp, having the highest and the lowest colony forming unit respectively. However the population density of the bacteria isolates based on the frequency of occurrence includes E. coli (34%), which was dominant followed by Staphylococcus aureus (24%), Streptococci Sp. (12%), Clostridium Sp. (4%), Klebsiella Sp. (4%) and Neisseria Sp. (2%). This shows that pen can be a potential format for the transmission of pathogens. Therefore it is important to encourage higher compliance to hand washing and personal hygienic practices.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolates from Patients Attending Health Care Facilities, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

V. U. Olugbue, V. O. Nwaugo, M. O. Okata, I. Oko, N. U. Okoro

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/39802

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolates from Patients Attending Health Care Facilities, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Aim: To determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi (called Salmonella Typhi henceforth) isolates from clinical specimens and the age group commonly infected with the bacteria.

Study Design: This is a prospective cross-sectional study conducted among in-patients and out-patients suspected of having typhoid fever.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted between May 2015 and June 2016 at the Microbiology Laboratory of Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

Methodology: A total of 782 clinical specimens of blood (296) and stool (486) were analyzed for the presence of S. Typhi. The organisms were isolated and confirmed following standard microbiological procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates was carried out using the disc diffusion test. Multidrug resistance was defined in this study as resistance to at least three different classes’ antibiotics.

Results: A total of 98 (12.53%) S. Typhi isolates were obtained from the clinical specimens analyzed. Out of this total, the stool specimen yielded 52 (10.70%) S. Typhi isolates whereas 46 (15.54 %) came from a blood specimen. There was no significant difference (P = 0.27) observed in the number of stool and blood specimen that yielded S. Typhi. The age group 31 – 40 years had the highest number 41 (41.84%) of S. Typhi infection. Within this age group, males had the highest number 23 (42.59%) of S. Typhi infection than females 18 (40.91%).  A high sensitivity to ofloxacin 50 (89.29%), followed by gentamycin 43 (76.79%) was observed against S. Typhi isolates from the tertiary hospital (MMH). A high resistance of 51 (91.07%) was observed against each of ceftazidime and amoxicillin/clavulanate followed by cefuroxime and cefixime that had 45 (80.36%) each. All the S. Typhi isolates from the teaching hospital (FETHA) were sensitive to ofloxacin 42 (100%), followed by gentamycin and ciprofloxacin that had 40 (95.24%) each. In FETHA, antibiotic resistance was observed to be highest against ceftazidime 38 (90.48%) followed by amoxicillin/clavulanate 32 (76.19%). A total of 37 (37.76%) S. Typhi isolates were multidrug resistant. Out of this number, 22 (39.29%) came from stool specimen whereas 15 (33.71%) came from a blood specimen. This study has shown that ofloxacin is as an effective drug in the treatment of S. Typhi infection in this area.