Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in Slaughter Houses in Sagamu, Nigeria

A. M. Deji-Agboola, N. O. Sunmola, J. A. Osiyemi, S. O. Makanjuola, P. A. Akinduti, O. Ejilude, E. O. Osiyemi

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/39834

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the strains of E. coli responsible for E. coli-associated diarrhea outbreaks world-wide due to the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle and their environment have been incriminated as the most important sources of pathogenic E. coli. The aim of this study was, therefore, to isolate and identify ETEC in abattoirs in Sagamu.

A total of 108 swab samples were collected from different anatomical sites and faeces of selected cattle and floor of slaughter houses in Sagamu, Nigeria. The faeces were collected into a universal bottle with scoop, the tip of sterile swab stick was moistened with sterile water and was used to collect samples from the body coats (Rump and Brisket) before slaughtering, skin (Brisket and Rump) after evisceration and slaughter house floors before and after use. All the samples were homogenized into sterile peptone water and incubated at 37oC for 18-24hrs. Each sample was cultured into MacConkey and Eosin Methylene Blue agar for bacteria isolates. Colonies with typical green metallic sheen after sub culturing into EMB were further identified using BD BBL identification system. All the positive isolates were a screen for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli genes (LT and ST) by polymerase chain reaction.

A total of 50 (46.3%) Escherichia coli were recovered from the different samples. The percentage of occurrence of E. coli in faeces 7 (70%) at Kara abattoir was slightly higher than that of Agbele abattoir 6 (60%) but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). E. coli was observed to be higher in brisket area of the body coat 5 (50%) at Agbele than the rump area of the body coat 4 (40%) but E. coli in the rump area of body coat 5 (50%) was higher than the region of the brisket of body coat 3 (30%) at Kara. The rump area of the skin had the least isolation rate when compared with the brisket of the skin at the two abattoirs. Furthermore, the molecular identification of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli virulence genes showed that none of the 50 E. coli isolated was positive for heat labile and heat stable genes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Broad Characterization of a Spirulina platensis Dry Powder Grown in Bubbled Columns

Luis Torres, Yaremi Lopez, Yolanda Gomez-y-Gomez, Esther Bautista, Luis J. Corzo

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/39995

Production and Broad Characterization of a Spirulina platensis Dry Powder Grown in Bubbled Columns

Aims: The aim of this work was to show the feasibility of growing Spirulina platensis in bubbled photo-bioreactors in a defined medium and after recovery and drying processes, to obtain a dry powder with food and nutraceutic characteristics such as those obtained by the proximal analysis, lipids and pigments profile, metals content, quelant and radical scavenger, antioxidant and antibiotic properties.

Place and Duration of Study: The work was carried out at Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Biotecnologia-IPN (Mexico City) facilities during 2017.

Methodology: In this paper, the mass production of microalgae in four 200 L bubbled column addresses growing in alkaline and saline, under ambient conditions and the complete characterization of the product in terms of its proximate analysis, metal content and the ability to inhibit growth of some microorganisms. A phytochemicals profile was carried out (qualitative results), the antibiotic activities against Gram negative and positive strains and an analysis of the present lipids and pigments were carried out.  Finally, antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of the product were measured.

Results: Photo-bioreactor 1 produced the highest concentration of biomass, although the largest mass of wet weight (757.6 g) and dry (160.8 g), were observed for the photo-photo-bioreactor 4. The photo-bioreactor 4 reached a mass productivity of 2.39 mg L-1h-1. On average, 153.35 g dry mass per photo-photo-bioreactor were produced, with a mass productivity of 2.28 mg L-1h-1. The obtained product compared well to a commercial one, with similar content of carbohydrates, protein, lipid, fiber, ash and total moisture (%). A phytochemicals profile was carried out (qualitative results). Regarding the Mexican standards, the product is below the recommended values only for ashes and crude fiber. Several alkaline earth and heavy metal values were found in the product. When calculating the intake of an adult weight of 70 kg who ingested 4 g day-1 of Spirulina, the values are not higher than the recommended intake for an adult by various associations (FAO/WHO, among them).  It also found that the product had antibiotic activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. It was also identified that the product had antioxidant and chelating activities and an analysis of the present lipids and pigments were carried out.

Conclusion: It can be said that the culture process in the bubbled photo-bioreactors generates a dry product with excellent food and nutraceutic properties which can be employed to solve malnutrition problems that small communities are experiencing in Mexico.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inherent Bacterial Diversity and Enhanced Bioremediation of an Aged Crude Oil-contaminated Soil in Yorla, Ogoni Land Using Composted Plant Biomass

Leera Solomon, Chimezie Jason Ogugbue, Gideon Chijioke Okpokwasili

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/39917

Inherent Bacterial Diversity and Enhanced Bioremediation of an Aged Crude Oil-contaminated Soil in Yorla, Ogoni Land Using Composted Plant Biomass

Aim: Inherent bacterial diversity and enhanced bioremediation of an aged crude oil-contaminated soil (ACOCS) in Yorla, Ogoni land were investigated using composted plant biomass of Eichhornia crassipes (EC), Tithonia diversifolia (TD) and Cynodon dactylon (CD) as biostimulants to enhance rate of crude oil biodegradation by autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms in the soil.

Study Design: An area of 50 m × 50 m was marked out in the ACOCS and EC, TD and CD (2,500 g each) were used to biostimulate 4,000g of ACOCS in situ in TPA (treatment plot A) through TPG (treatment plot G). TPA was un-amended while TPB, TPC, and TPD had EC, TD and CD added singly. TPE had EC and TD, TPF with EC and CD whereas; TPG had EC, TD, and CD combined.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Yorla farm land in Khana L.G.A. in Rivers State. Age crude oil-contaminated soil was taken bi-weekly from each of the 7 treatment setup during the 70-day remediation study period that spanned 10 weeks (0, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70).

Methodology: Soil samples were obtained using an auger and analyzed for their microbiological            and physicochemical properties. Whole plant parts of EC, TD, and TD were collected and composted for 2 weeks before being used for biostimulation of resident crude oil-utilizing microbes.

Results: Results indicated reductions in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) from 98,673 to 79,583 ppm (19% loss), 98,443 to 31,461 ppm (68% loss), 98,446 to 19,364 ppm (80% loss), 98,337 to 26,345 ppm (78% loss), 98,225 to 6,987 ppm (93% loss), 98,113 to 11,243 ppm (89% loss) and 93,867 to 1,002 ppm (99% loss) in TPA, TPB, TPC, TPD, TPE, TPF and TPG respectively. Gas chromatographic fingerprinting of ACOCS before treatment indicated the absence of n-alkanes within n-C2 to n-C8 region which is attributable to weathering processes. However, after treatment with the amendments, carbon lengths between n-C9to n-C34 were significantly (ρ >0.05) attenuated while the much heavier fractions (n-C35 to n-C45) showed a decreasing tendency for enhanced biodegradation thus, signifying their immobilization or possibility of being “lock-up” in particle pores.

Conclusion: Results suggest that composted E. crassipes, T. diversifolia and C. dactylon are potent biostimulants for enhanced degradation of residual hydrocarbons after aging of contaminated sites. These substrates could serve as potential candidates for rapid bioremediation of aged crude oil-contaminated soil hence, availing these long lost fields in for crop cultivation once again.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Condom and Knowledge of Own HIV Status among Undergraduates of Ten Tertiary Schools in Ekiti and Ondo States Southwest, Nigeria

G. O. Daramola, H. A. Edogun, A. O. Ojerinde, A. A. Agbaje, O. Ogunbola, O. O. Ajala, A. Egbebi, E. F. Akerele

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/40205

Use of Condom and Knowledge of Own HIV Status among Undergraduates of Ten Tertiary Schools in Ekiti and Ondo States Southwest, Nigeria

Bearing a burden of 66.7% of all global cases, HIV infection has become a major health challenge in Africa in general and sub-Sahara Africa in particular. For this reason, the battle to halt HIV/AIDS’ spread in Africa, particularly in Nigeria is being fought on different fronts, carefully considering all factors that can help bring down prevalence rate and curb the spread of the disease. Two of such fronts are advocacies for the consistent and right use of a condom, as well as voluntary testing to know own HIV status. In this study, 100 undergraduates each were sampled consecutively from ten tertiary schools in Ekiti and Ondo States of Nigeria, so as to evaluate the level of use of condom and knowledge of own HIV status among this group of youths and young adults. The study was conducted through the use of self-administered questionnaires among the enrolled undergraduates. The 1000 subjects comprised 421(42.1%) males and 57.1 (57.1%) females, while 8 (0.8%) did not disclose their gender. Five hundred and twenty-one (52.1%) of the subjects fell within the 21-30 age-bracket, 407 (40.7%) were 20years and below, 22 (2.2%) were within the 31-40 age-bracket, while 12(1.2%) were 40years and above. Thirty-eight (3.8%) did not disclose their age-bracket. Two hundred and four (20.4%) of the subjects always used condom, 169 (16.9%) used it occasionally, 139 (13.9%) never used during sexual intercourse, 403(40.3%) indicated that the use of condom wasn’t applicable to them (this group was presumed to be sexually inactive/inert), while 85 (8.5%) didn’t volunteer information about their sexual activity. Findings also revealed that majority, 564(56.4%) of the subjects did not know their HIV status, 51(5.1%) were indifferent about their HIV status, 25 (2.5%) did not disclose if they knew their HIV status or not. However, 360 (36%) knew their HIV status. With more than half of the study population not knowing their HIV status, it is therefore suggested that health policy-makers should scale-up advocacy activities to persuade the general populace in Nigeria to go for voluntary testing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enterovirus-A76 of South-East Asian Ancestry in a Captive Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Jos, Nigeria

A. O. Oragwa, U. E. George, T. O. C. Faleye, M. O. Adewumi, J. A. Adeniji

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/40008

Enterovirus-A76 of South-East Asian Ancestry in a Captive Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Jos, Nigeria

Background: Contact points between humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) during the past decades have increased significantly in Africa. This provides opportunities for largescale emergence of novel virus types and species with unpredictable pathogenicity and clinical impacts. This study was designed to investigate and catalogue Enteroviruses (EVs) present in captive NHPs in Nigeria.

Methods: Twenty-seven (27) fecal samples collected from captive NHPs in a Wild Life Park and Zoological garden at Jos, Nigeria in April 2016 were analyzed in this study.  Samples were resuspended in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS)/chloroform mixture, and the clarified supernatant was subjected to RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, a Panenterovirus 5I-UTR assay and three different enterovirus VP1 snPCR assays. All amplicons from the snPCR assays were sequenced, and enteroviruses identified using the enterovirus genotyping tool and phylogenetic analysis.

Results: Eight (29.63%) (two each from Chimpanzees, Patas Monkey, Mona Monkey and Baboon) of the 27 samples were positive for the 5I-UTR assay. One (3.70%) of the 27 samples was positive for the enterovirus VP1 snPCR assays in addition to its positivity by 5I-UTR assay. The same sample happens to be one of the two samples from Chimpanzees that tested positive for the 5I-UTR assay, and it was subsequently identified as EV-A76 of South-East Asia ancestry.

Conclusions: This study documents the first recorded attempt to detect and identify enteroviruses in NHPs in Nigeria. It also reports the first detection and identification of EV-A76 in Nigeria and particularly in a NHP. It is of utmost importance that the enterovirus VP1 assays be improved to enable detection of EVs that have been detected in NHPs but yet to be described in humans.