Open Access Short Research Article

Distribution and Identification of Nematodes in Tomato Farmers’ Fields in the Selected Semi-Arid Climates of Central and Northern Tanzania

Julius S. Missanga, Chrispinus D. Rubanza

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/38936

Distribution and Identification of Nematodes in Tomato Farmers’ Fields in the Selected Semi-Arid Climates of Central and Northern Tanzania

Aims: On farm assessment of nematode infestation in tomato farmers’ fields was carried out by scoring their incidence and severity in the selected semi-arid climates of central and northern Tanzania. Out of 25 plants assessed from each farmer’s field, 5 plants were uprooted and scored using a 1-5 galling index. Uprooted disease plant and soil samples were collected for laboratory assessment. This study revealed a degree of variation in the mean incidence and severity of nematode infestation along the study areas. Meloidogyne, Scutellonema and Helicotylenchus were identified nematodes of economic importance. Meloidogyne was the most predominant nematode across all the production areas. It was therefore advised that farmers’ management practices be improved alongside an establishment of varieties that could withstand pressure of nematodes as revealed from present study.

Study Design: Study was cross-sectional assessment survey.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in farmers’ fields in 22 villages from peri-urban areas of Dodoma Municipality, Kongwa, Babati and Kiteto districts as the main tomato growing areas in the central and northern districts of Tanzania in 2013/14 and 2015/16 production seasons.

Methodology: On farm assessment of nematode was taken by scoring incidence and severity of their infestation. From each village, four tomato farmers’ fields were randomly selected for an assessment. Out of 25 plants selected from each field, 5 plants were uprooted to 15-30 cm soil depth for nematode scoring. Gall score for severity determination of nematodes was a 1-5 galling index i.e. 1 (no galling) to 5 (severe galling). Incidence % of nematodes was analyzed to low, medium, or high, if (≤25%), (25% < to 50%), and (50% < to 100%) of tomato roots were infested with nematodes respectively.

Results: The average mean incidence of nematodes along the selected semi-arid climates of central and northern Tanzania was 36.1% with the highest mean incidence (48%) discovered in Kongwa district. Kiteto and Babati districts had the next highest mean incidence by 38.3 and 34.3% respectively. The lowest mean incidence (23.8%) was discovered in peri-urban areas of Dodoma Municipality. The mean incidence had an impact on the average mean severity (2.7) of nematode infestation and the mean severity in the specific district along the study areas. Kongwa district that had the greatest incidence along the study areas was noted with the highest mean severity by 3.8. Closely, was Kiteto by 3.0 which had greater mean incidence than two other districts; Babati and Dodoma Municipality whose mean severity were the lowest by 2.3 and 2.2 respectively. Furthermore, Meloidogyne was discovered the most predominant nematode along the selected study areas by 99.3%. Tylenchulus, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Aphelenchoides and Rotylenchus were revealed less common nematodes by 0.7% in total.

Conclusion: It was advised that farmers’ management practices be improved alongside an establishment of more varieties that could withstand dry climates and doing well in pressure of nematodes within surveyed areas.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Recovery of Nonpolio Enteroviruses from L20B Cell Line with Non-reproducible Cytopathic Effect

J. A. Adeniji, U. I. Ibok, O. T. Ayinde, A. O. Oragwa, U. E. George, T. O. C. Faleye, M. O. Adewumi

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/40046

Background and Aim of the Study: Samples showing cytopathic effect (CPE) on initial inoculation into L20B cell line but with no observed or reproducible CPE on passage in L20B or RD are considered negative for both poliovirus and nonpolio enteroviruses (NPEVs). The phenomenon is termed ‘non-reproducible CPE’. Its occurrence is usually ascribed to the likely presence of reoviruses, adenoviruses and other non-enteroviruses. This study aimed to investigate the likelihood that NPEVs are also present in cases with non-reproducible CPE.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Virology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan using twenty-six (26) cell culture suspensions collected from the WHO National Polio Laboratory, Department of Virology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan. The suspensions emanated from 13 L20B cell culture tubes that showed cytopathology within 5 days of inoculation with faecal suspension from AFP cases. However, on passage into one each of RD and L20B cell lines, the CPE was not reproducible. The study lasted for three (3) months from samples collection to report writing.

Methodology: All samples were subjected to RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, the WHO recommended VP1 RT-seminested PCR assay, species resolution PCR assay, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.

Results: Six (6) samples were positive for the VP1 RT-seminested PCR assay. Only four of which were positive by the species resolution PCR assay. The four amplicons were sequenced, however, only three (3) were successfully identified as Coxsackievirus A20 (2 isolates) and Echovirus 29 (1 isolate).

Conclusion:  The results of this study unambiguously showed the presence of NPEVs (particularly CVA20 and E29) in cell culture supernatants of samples with CPE on initial inoculation into L20B cell line but with no observed or reproducible CPE on passage in RD cell line. Therefore, like reoviruses, adenoviruses and other non-enteroviruses, NPEVs can also be recovered in cases with non-reproducible CPE.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Sensitivity Changes in Mixed Species Biofilm of Oral Streptococci against Chlorhexidine and Cetylpyridinium Chloride

So Yeon Lee, Si Young Lee

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/39737

Background and Objectives: Although plaques are present in a mixed state of various bacterial species, it is not yet known how antimicrobial efficacy of mixed bacteria against the antimicrobial agent changes compared to susceptibility of individual bacteria to the antimicrobial agent. In this study, antibacterial effects of chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride were observed in biofilm state after mixing two bacteria to observe the change of susceptibility value when bacteria were mixed with each other.

Materials and Methods: The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) and the minimum biofilm eradiation concentration (MBEC) were determined to determine the susceptibility of the antimicrobial agent after the formation of the biofilm, and were determined by microtiter plate method according to the previously reported method.

Results: When two bacteria with different susceptibility values were mixed, it was observed that most of the combinations had higher values of susceptibility values of the two bacteria. However, in some bacterial combinations, susceptibility values of the two bacteria revealed various results such as following the low value, lower than the low value, or higher than the high value.

Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that antimicrobial susceptibility to mixed bacteria can change in a variety of ways without simply following high values.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial and Ftir Spectral Analysis of Methanolic Extract of Gliricidia sepium Leaves

M. K. Oladunmoye, K. J. Ayantola, A. A. Agboola, B. M. Olowe, O. G. Adefemi

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/40580

Antibacterial and Ftir Spectral Analysis of Methanolic Extract of Gliricidia sepium Leaves

Aim: The present study was carried out with the objective to analyse the methanol extracts of Gliricidia sepium leaves using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method.

Place and Period of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Microbiology Federal University of Technology Akure between January 2013 and July 2014.

Methodology: The in vitro killing rate effect (antibacterial activities) of the extract- bioactive components was examined to see if they have inhibitory effect on the selected test organisms using pour plating method. The FTIR method was performed on a spectrophotometer system which detects different characteristic peak values associated with various functional groups present the extracts.

Results: All the isolates were susceptible to the extract with the number of the test organisms drastically reduced with time. The FTIR analysis of methanol  extracts of G. sepium confirmed the presence of alcohols, aldehydes, alkanes, amide, alkenes, aromatics, carboxylic acids, ketones, esters, ethers, phenols, primary amines, Aliphatic bromo compound, Aryl disulphide and aliphatic amines compounds, which showed at different peaks. The FTIR method was performed on a spectrophotometer system, which was used to determine the characteristic peak values and their functional groups.

Conclusion: The results of the present study generated the FTIR spectrum profile for the medicinally important plants showed that the leaf extract of G. sepium can be used for pharmacological purpose.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Microorganisms Isolated from the Intestine and Body Parts of the African Giant Land Snail (Achatina achatina) Sold in Akure, Nigeria

A. K. Onifade, E. A. Aiyenuro

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/40621

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Microorganisms Isolated from the Intestine and Body Parts of the African Giant Land Snail

(Achatina achatina) Sold in Akure, Nigeria

Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of microorganisms isolated from the intestine of African giant land snail (Achatina achatina) sold in Akure, Ondo state, Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: Snail samples were obtainedfrom Ilara, Ogbese, Oja-Oba, Owena including Ecotourism and Wildlife department (EWM) of Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo state, between June and August, 2017. This research work was carried out at the Department of Microbiology laboratory, Federal University of Technology, Akure.

Methodology: A total of seventy-eight (78) snail samples were collected from different locations. The types and loads of fungi and bacteria in the body parts of the snail samples were determined, Identification and characterization of various bacterial isolates were based on Gram-staining technique and biochemical tests. The fungal isolates were identified by their morphological features and lactophenol cotton blue staining procedure. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates was evaluated using standard methods.Klebsiella pneumoniae being resistant to multiple antibiotics and as such subjected to plasmid analysis.

Results: Escherichia coli (17.1%),Enterobacter species (13.3%), Klebsiella pnuemoniae (12.9%), Proteus vulgaris (15.7%), Salmonella species (15.7%) and Staphylococcus aureus (25.2%) were isolated from the body parts of the snails. While Escherichia coli (18.7%), Enterobacter species (7.32%), Klebsiella pnuemoniae (14.63%), Proteus vulgaris (12.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.38%), Salmonella species (13.82%), Shigella species (9.76%)and Staphylococcus aureus (12.2%) were isolated from the snail’s intestine. The fungi isolated include: Alternaria species, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Fusarium species, Paecillomyces variotti, Penicillium marneffei and Aspergillus oryzae. Ofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against the bacteria isolates, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were the least effective on the isolates. Most of the fungal isolates were resistant to Griseofulvin. Penicillium marneffei was resistant to Itraconazole, Ketonazole, Grieofulvin but sensitive to Terbinafine.

Conclusion: Findings from this study revealed that the African giant land Snail harbours bacterial and fungal pathogens, these pathogens have obvious public health implications.