Open Access Original Research Article

Screening and Characterization of Putative Probiotic Lactobacillus Strains from Honey Bee Gut (Apis mellifera)

Chancel Hector Momo Kenfack, Pierre Marie Kaktcham, François Zambou Ngoufack, Yan Rui Wang, Li Yin, Taicheng Zhu

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/40780

The objective of this work was to isolate, identify and characterize lactobacilli strains from the intestinal tract of honey bees as putative probiotics. We obtained eighty-five isolates. At the end of screening based on physiological properties, 17 isolates were pre-selected and their resistance to gastrointestinal stress was evaluated. Twelve (12) with good resistance after 3 h exposure to low pH values (pH2, pH3) were subjected to determination of their in vitro BSH activity. The research of the bsh-A, bsh-B, Bsh1 and Bsh-Lp1 genes encoding the BSH enzyme was also conducted. Four isolates (H46, H82, H21 and H28) were resistant, seven others tolerant (H6, H15, H47, H24, H67, H44, H80) and only one was sensitive (H63) to oxgall bile salt. Determination of BSH activity revealed that all strains hydrolyze bile salts, with a preference for oxgall as opposed to Taurodeoxycholate. H15 and H47 isolates showed the highest BSH activities, which were 103.82 ± 12.93 U/mg and 98.53 ± 2.86 U/mg, respectively, with no significant difference (p>0.05). Only the bsh-Lp1 gene was amplified in isolate H24 and H28. None of the strains showed the bsh-1, bsh-A or bsh-B genes. After sequencing bsh-Lp1 gene of H24 and H28, the BSH proteins deduced from the complete ORF showed high similarity with those of GenBank database. Antimicrobial activity revealed the inhibition zone against pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria. Isolates were identified based on the sequencing of 16S rRNA encoding gene as Lactobacillus plantarum (75%) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (25%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of a Creek in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

Williams, Janet Olufunmilayo, Madise, Enitoun

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/40795

An investigation was carried out on the microbiological and physicochemical quality of Amadi-ama Creek in Rivers State. Samples taken from the Creek were subjected to some physicochemical analyses like pH, DO, BOD, Hardness, temperature, sulphate, phosphate, turbidity, electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solids, nitrate, ammonia, etc. pH ranged from 7.14 to 7.16, temperature, 26.4°C to 27.6°C while salinity was from 13.6 mg/l to 15.9 mg/l. Dissolved  Oxygen (DO) ranged from 7.20 mg/l  to 7.40 mg/l. Chemical oxygen demand was from 21.2 mg/ml to 26.1 mg/l . The total heterotrophic bacterial counts ranged from 3.0x105 - 4.0x105 cfu/ml which exceeded the limit of 1.0 x 102 cfu/ml for natural water. The total Yeast and Mould counts ranged from 2.3x104 –2.7x104 sfu/ml and 2.0x104 -2.2x104 sfu/ml respectively. The total coliform counts were higher in point A for weeks 1 and 2 with 400 and 420 MPN Index/100 ml respectively while Point B had 390 and 400 MPN Index/100 ml for weeks 1 and 2. The total thermotolerant coliform for points A and B for both weeks was 85 MPN Index/100 ml. The genera of bacteria isolated included Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Bacillus sp., Klebsiella sp., E.coli, Staphylococcus sp., Streptoccocus sp., Corynebacterium sp.  and Enterobacter sp. The study revealed few species of fungi and they include Penicillium sp., Fusarium solani, Mucor sp. and Rhizopus sp. These are a group of fungi that invade the superficial layer of the skin and degrade the keratinized tissues of skin, hair and nails in living animals including man, causing skin diseases. Aspergillus was also present in this study and it is a group of moulds found everywhere worldwide. Only a few of these molds can cause illness in humans and animals. Most people are naturally immune and do not develop disease caused by Aspergillus. However, when disease occurs, it takes several forms. Any Water body contaminated with some of `these pathogenic microorganisms represent an unhealthy livelihood (poor personal and household hygiene) in the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Resistance Profile and Molecular Characterization of Extended-spectrum Beta-lactamase Genes in Enterobacteria Isolated from Human, Animal and Environment

Gbonon M’bengue Valérie Carole, Guessennd Nathalie Kouadio, Ouattara Mohamed Baguy, Ouattara Gnoh Djénéba, Abraham Ayayi, Tiekoura Konan Bertin, Toty Abalé Anatole, Kouadio Kouamé Innocent, Dissinviel Stéphane Kpoda, Tahou Eric, Konate Ali, Konan Fernique, Kamenan Alphonse, Dosso Mireille, Ger Bmr

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/39955

Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the antibiotic resistance profile and characterize extended spectrum beta-lactamase gene of enterobacteria strains isolated from human biological products, fecal matter of animals and the environment.

Materials and Methods: Enterobacteria producing ESBL strains were isolated from human products, fecal matter of healthy animals (cattle, sheep and pigs) intended for human consumption and environment (hospital effluents and municipal sewage) using homemade medium (Drigalski supplemented with 2 mg/L of ceftazidime). Resistance to beta-lactams has been evaluated by the diffusion method was carried out as recommended by NCCLS. Characterization of Beta-Lactamase resistance genes (blaCTXM, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaGES, blaPER and blaVEB) was performed by simplex and multiplex PCR.

Results: The strains were resistant to antibiotics from beta-lactam family (penicillin with inhibitor, monobactam, cephalosporin) but no resistant was observed to carbapenem (imipénème, méropénème). All resistance genes were identified in environment strains.

Conclusion: This study showed the presence of common beta-lactam resistance genes (blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M) to human, animal and environment. The risk of dissemination and circulation of ESBL enterobacteria between animals, humans and the environment exists in Ivory Coast because of the absence of a barrier between them.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Antibodies and Associated Risk Factors among School Children in Parts of Kaduna State, Nigeria

S. M. Lawal, H. I. Inabo, E. E. Ella

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/40111

Aims: The study was aimed at determining the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors among school children in parts of Kaduna state.

Study Design:  Cross-sectional community-based study.

Place and Duration of Study: Kaduna state from February to September 2016.

Methodology: A total of 300 blood samples were collected from school children in three Local Governments Areas (LGA) of Kaduna state namely: Soba, Kauru and Giwa LGA. The sera were screened for Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG antibodies by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).

Results: Of 300 blood samples screened, seropositivity for Toxoplasma IgM antibody was 108 (36.0%). Fifty (16.67%) of the tested seropositive for the Toxoplasma IgG antibody and 24 (8.0%) tested seropositive for Toxoplasma IgG+IgM antibodies. Children in Soba Local Government Area had the highest seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgM (72%), followed by Giwa LGA (27%). The least seroprevalence was recorded in Kauru LGA (9%). The highest seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG was found among children in Kauru 21 (21%), followed by Soba 15 (15%) and finally Giwa 14 (14%). IgM seroprevalence of 63.44%, 29.79%, and 10.61% were recorded among school children between the age groups 7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years respectively, whereas T. gondii IgG seroprevalence was recorded in 29.03%, 13.48% and 6.06% children between the age groups 7-10, 11-14 and 15-18years respectively. A lower seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was recorded among the female children (IgM = 34.9% and IgG = 16%) compared to the male (IgM = 37.4% and IgG = 17.6%) the difference observed was not statistically significant. In this study, the presence of cats at home, contact with cat and contact with cat litter were estimated to be risk factors associated with T. gondii infection.

Conclusion: Hand washing before eating, hand washing after playing and drinking of treated water (not well water) were estimated to be protective factors associated with T. gondii infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Fecal Coliform Levels at Watering Points along the Upper Reaches of River Isiukhu in Kakamega County, Kenya

Sarah Kindiki, Mario Kollenberg, Donald Siamba, Anthony Sifuna, Clabe Wekesa

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/39522

Diarrheal diseases often attributable to poor sanitary conditions and fecal contamination of drinking water remain a leading cause of mortality for children younger than five years. Water contaminated with human faeces, for example from municipal sewage, septic tanks and latrines, is of particular concern. Animal faeces also contain microorganisms that can cause diarrhea. Kakamega County in Kenya has a diarrhea prevalence rate of 20.2%, which is the highest in the country; a good proportion of these cases are believed to be water borne. This study was designed to determine fecal coliform levels in water samples collected from watering points along the upper reaches of River Isiukhu in Kakamega County, Kenya. Fifty-four samples were collected between August and October 2015 from nine sampling points, comprising springs and watering points along the river. Water samples were filtered on nitrocellulose filters by vacuum filtration; fecal coliform counts were conducted using membrane filters cultured on mFC agar to establish contamination levels. The results indicated that counts ranged from 200 cfu/100 ml – 1450 cfu/100 ml in river sampling points and ranged from 0 cfu/100 ml – 44 cfu/100 ml in springs sampling points. The fecal coliform counts for River Isiukhu and most springs surrounding it exceeded the WHO recommended drinking water coliform (or E. coli) count value of 0 cfu/100 ml indicating that water from the upper reaches of River Isiukhu and springs is not fit for drinking before treatment, especially during the wet seasons, based on WHO drinking water standards.