Open Access Short Research Article

blaOXA-48 Carbapenem Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates in Sudan

Salma Elnour Rahma Mohamed, Alfadil Alobied, Wafa Mohamed Hussien, Mohamed Ibrahim Saeed

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/34964

Carbapenems are the last resort of antimicrobial therapy, resistance to antibiotics specially carbapenems poses a global problem that may have devastating consequences on the community.

We investigated 67 multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the presence of the blaoxa-48 gene using real time PCR.

The isolates were obtained from Three major hospitals in Khartoum state Sudan; Army hospital, Khartoum hospital and the national Ribat university teaching hospital, from December 2015 to January 2017.

Out of 67 samples, 22.4% were positive for the blaoxa-48, 46.3% were resistant to Imipenem and 32.8% of the samples were resistant to Meropenem.

The emergence of carbapenem resistance possesses an imminent threat, leaving patients with no choice of treatment. Monitoring the emergence of resistant strains will allow taking suitable preventive measures to take place. Our findings revealed that carbapenem resistant due to the gene blaOXA-48 is accounted for 22.4% of the cases, and due to poor data documentation about the emergence of this gene in Sudan, these cases to the best of our knowledge are the first to be reported in Sudan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Prevalence and Risk Factors of HBV AND HIV CO- Infections among HIV Infected Patients Attending ART Clinic in Port Harcourt

K. T. Wariso, O. E. Agbagwa, P. O. Igho, A. J. Igunma

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/41433

Background: HBV and HIV infection are both high prevalence infections in our society and often associated with chronic diseases, high morbidity and mortality. Both viruses share similar characteristics such as same route of transmission, the use of reverse transcriptase enzyme for replication, tendency to develop chronic infections, and an immense capacity of mutation in their genome.

Aims: To determine the prevalence and the associated risk factors of HBV among HIV positive patients in Port Harcourt, using ELISA kits and questionnaires.

Methodology: This cross sectional study of HBV/HIV co-infection was carried out among 100 HIV positive attending adult ART-clinics in UPTH between July and August 2017 using HBsAg ELISA kits(DIA.PRO, diagnostic Bioprobes Srl. Italy.) and questionnaires for the evaluation of possible independent predictors and other variables such as social demographic characteristics.

Results: Overall prevalence of HBV/HIV co infections in the study was 22%, with demonstrable decreased prevalence of HBV/HIV co infections with increasing age of respondents but this relationship was not statistically significant P<0.05. Similarly, the relationship between HBV/HIV co infection and level of CD4+ counts was also not statistically significant P<0.05 While unlike primary and secondary level education, there was statistically significant relationship between HBV/HIV co infections and tertiary level of education P<0.05.,

Conclusion: The high prevalence of HBV/HIV co infections our study corroborated the report of high burden of this disease in Nigeria. To reverse the steady state of this “hyper-endemicity,’’ there is need for coordinated health education, as well as strict adherence to management guidelines to minimize possible associated complications

Open Access Original Research Article

Plasmid Profile and Multidrug Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated From Swine in Aba Abia State Nigeria

Nwiyi, Paul Okechukwu

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/40666

Plasmid play a vital role in the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria. A total of 90 isolates of Escherichia coli was recovered from 100 swab samples (neonate, piglet and adult pigs). The isolates were identified based on morphological and biochemical classification. Twenty (20) of the representative isolates were confirmed using molecular method and then used for plasmid profile analysis. The isolates were tested for their antibiotic sensitivity and were found to be resistant to amoxicillin, oxacillin, erythromycine and streptomycin at 100%, 96%, 76% and 68% respectively. Multi-drug phenotypic characteristics were found in recovered bacteria. Escherichia coli (24.0%) exhibited resistant with the predominant resistance patterns of CIP-OXF-CET-CEZ-GEN-AUG-CXM. Plasmid cure was observed in some of the bacterial isolates which indicate that resistance was plasmid mediated while those that were not cured are chromosomally mediated. The study revealed that there were multidrug resistant strains of E. coli in Swine. Molecular detection of E. coli showed bands with amplicon size of 160bp. The plasmid showed poor visible band and the procedure may account for this. From the study, swine may serve as source of intermediate host for antimicrobial resistant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance of Bacterial Isolates Associated with Fish Aquaculture in Ponds and Rivers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

David N. Ogbonna, Mandu E. Inana

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/41073

The transfer of resistant organisms through consumption of contaminated fish and shell fish poses a substantial risk of environmental contamination because of the practice of using medicated feeds to treat pens or cages. However, antibiotics used for animals either for therapy or prophylaxis can result in transfer of resistant genes from animals to humans and thereby establishing a reservoir of resistant microbes. This study was aimed at identifying bacterial isolates associated with fish pond aquaculture and their multiple resistance pattern to antibiotics. Samples of infected catfishes were collected from a fish pond in Aluu, Rivers state. The fishes were characterized by skin lesions which indicate the infection. Sterile swabs were used to swab the lesions on the skins of the fishes. The antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates was determined using the disc diffusion method. Standardized inoculums of the overnight grown broth cultures were spread on Mueller-Hinton agar plates using sterile swabs. The plates were dried at room temperature for 2 h before placing the antibiotic discs at equidistance and incubated for 24 h at 370C and the diameter of zone of inhibition was measured. Predominant bacterial isolates from the cultures of swabs from the skins of infected fishes on various media were characterized and identified as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, Salmonella sp, Shigella sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter and Enterococcus fecalis. The results obtained for antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolates show that most of the test isolates were resistant to the activities of Ceftazidine (CAZ), Cetriaxone (CRO), Cefotaxine (CTX), Cephalexin (CL) and Tetracycline (TC) while Gentamycin (CN) and Ciproflaxacin (CIP) were highly susceptible to most test isolates. The fact that transfers of resistant bacteria between aquatic animals and humans through consumption or handling of fish can pose a serious hazard to human health. Therefore the presence of multiple drug resistant bacteria from fish and fish handlers do not only poses risk of disease infection to fishes but also public health hazard to fish handlers and consumers in general.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diagnosis of a Suspected Rift Valley Fever Outbreak Using Capture IgM ELISA in the Sudan

Tamador M. A. Elhassan, M. E. Ahmed, M. E. Amira, M. B. Abdel Rahman, A. M. ElHussein, A. E. Karrar, A. I. Nahid, Y. A. Sabiel, A. S. Mohammed, M. A. Abdel Azzizz, I. H. Ahmed

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/41076

During an unusual heavy rainfall season, in October 2007, a serological diagnosis was conducted using Rift Valley Fever (RVF) IgM  Enzyme Linked- Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for detection IgM immunoglobulin in suspected outbreak of hemorrhagic fever in The White Nile, Gezira, Sinnar and The Blue Nile States of the Sudan. A total of 323 blood samples were collected from cattle, sheep and goats and analysed. The overall percentages of IgM antibodies in the three species of animals in the study areas were; 53.6% for caprine, 48.3% for ovine and 21.3% for bovine. Gizera State showed highest morbidity (50%) followed by The White Nile (24.6%) and then Sinnar and Blue Nile states, (21%). Bovine showed low infection whereas caprine morbidity was high followed by the ovine. The overall positive percentage of all animal examined (cattle, sheep and goats) from the Study areas was 35.6% (125/323) Table.