Open Access Short Research Article

Assessment of Microbial and Sensory Properties of Bread Fortified with Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus and Calocybe indica)

V. O. Oyetayo, R. R. Oyedeji

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/32233

Microbial and sensory properties of bread fortified with mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus and Calocybe indica were investigated. The bread was prepared with baking formula of 56% wheat flour, 36% water, 3.4% sugar1.6% shortening, 1% skim milk powder, 1% salt, and 1% yeast. Mushroom Powder (MP) was used to substitute wheat flour in bread formulation at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The 0% inclusion served as positive control, while conventional bread obtained in the market served as the negative control. Microbial and sensory properties of the bread were determined using standard methods. The study revealed that the microbial load of both conventional and mushroom fortified bread was low with bacterial count ranging from 1.7 x 103 cfu/g to 3.3 x 103 cfu/g and fungal counts ranging from 0.3 x 104sfu/g to 7.0 x 104 sfu/g in the mushroom fortified bread. Bacteria isolated were Lactobacillus fermentum, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus, while fungi isolated were Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Penicillum notatum, and Aspergillus flavus. Sensory evaluation indicated no significant difference of overall acceptability between positive control and 5% MP bread (8.7 and 8.2. respectively), however, the acceptability of the positive control was higher and significantly different (P<0.05) when compared to the 10%MP inclusion (7.30). Acceptability further reduced to 4.30 as more MP (20%) was added. The result from this study revealed that microbial load of bread with mushroom was not significantly different (P<0.05) from conventional bread. Moreover, sensory evaluation also revealed that 5%MP inclusion is acceptable while the acceptability of bread fortified with mushroom decreased as MP inclusion increased.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Potential of a Rare Actinomycete Isolated from Soil: Crossiella sp.-EK18

O. M. Adeyemo, A. A. Onilude

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/41989

Aim: The aim of this work was to screen for important broad-spectrum antimicrobial metabolites-producing species of Actinomycetes from the uncultivated soil of Ekiti State, Southwestern,            Nigeria.

Methodology: Ten uncultivated or barren soil samples each of 20 g were collected across Ekiti state between April and June 2014 for the isolation of Actinomycetes. The isolate was identified culturally as well as molecularly using 16S rDNA analysis. The influence of production parameters on antimicrobial activity was performed using standard method. The antimicrobial metabolites were produced by submerged fermentation. Partial purification was carried out by column chromatography. Chemical characteristics of the metabolites were determined by Fourier transformed infra-red spectrometer (FTIR) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The antimicrobial activity was carried out by agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution.

Results: Out of ten actinomycetes isolated, Isolate EK18 possessed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and it was identified to be a strain of Crossiella based on its 16S rDNA gene sequence (KU934250). The best antimicrobial activity against indicator strains was observed at pH 7.0, at 28 degree Celsius after 15 days of incubation, in a medium that contained starch, casein+KNO3 supplemented with sodium chloride of 0.6% (w/v). Unsaturated aliphatic alkene, carboxylic acids, amides, hydroxyl, and carbonyls were functional groups detected in the synthesized antimicrobial metabolites by the strain while eleven antimicrobial metabolites were identified and characterized. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against indicator strains was between 3.12 mg/L to 12.5 mg/L while Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) ranged between 12.5 mg/L and 25.0 mg/L. Crossiella sp.-EK18 exhibited broad-spectrum activity against indicator strains.

Conclusion: The results indicated that potential broad-spectrum antimicrobial metabolites-producing strains of Actinomycetes could be isolated from the soil of southwestern Nigeria. These strains could be used in the production of antimicrobials that may find usefulness in combating emergent and re-emerging pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Resistance Pattern and Plasmid Profile of E. coli Isolated from Diarrhoeic Children in Selected Health Centres in Sokoto, Nigeria

Bello Rabiu Alkali, Kabiru Mohammed, Saraja Ahmodu Opaluwa, Zainab Najim, John Ochei, Saheed Ladipo Kakako

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/41007

Aim: The resistance pattern and plasmid profile of E. coli was evaluated in this study.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study was carried out.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was conducted in Specialist Hospital; Maryam Abacha Women and Children Hospital; and Women and Children Welfare Clinic, Sokoto State, Nigeria from May to October, 2017.

Methodology: A total of 236 stool samples were collected from diarrhoeic children of age ≤5 years from selected Hospitals in Sokoto, Nigeria. Isolation and identification of E. coli strains were carried out using standard methods and procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disc-diffusion method. Plasmid extraction was carried out using alkaline lysis method while curing of the plasmid harbouring strains was done using standard curing technique.

Results: The result showed that 96 (41%) of the bacteria were E. coli, all of which were resistant to ampicillin and augmentin. The resistance to antibiotics shows 19 different resistance patterns. Sixty-one point five (61.5%) were multidrug resistant (MDR). Majority 9/10 (90%) of the MDR isolates harboured plasmids, with size ranging from 6.0 to 20 kb. All the cured strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and ceftazidime indicating that resistance to these antibiotics was plasmid mediated.

Conclusion: E. coli isolates from diarrhoeic children in selected Health centres, demonstrated a significant antibiotic resistance and they harboured plasmids of diverse sizes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Kumasi, Ghana

Desmond O. Acheampong, Richard Opoku, Christian K. Adokoh, Alex Boye, Ernest A. Asiamah, Francis A. Armah, Mawuena K. Tsegah, Samuel B. Adomako

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/42157

Background: In most African countries, including Ghana, treatment of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is based on syndromic management owing to lack of laboratory equipment and resources in primary care facilities where most patients first visit.

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and evaluate its susceptibility pattern to standard antimicrobials used for empirical treatment of the infection in patients that attended Ellolab Diagnostic Centre at Kumasi from November 2014 to July 2017.

Methodology: Four hundred and twenty-seven (427) clinical specimens from suspected patients were cultured on chocolate agar. Positive cultures were tested for resistance against twelve antimicrobial agents using the disk diffusion method.

Results: N. gonorrhoeae was identified in 117 of the clinical samples. This represents an overall prevalence of 27.4%, with 39.3% and 60.7% occurring in males and females respectively. Maximum cases were observed in the 16-24 age group. Interestingly, the organism showed high levels of resistance to the nationally recommended drugs for first-line empirical treatment; Ceftriaxone 85.5%, Ciprofloxacin 46.2% and Amikacin 1.7%.

Conclusion: The local susceptibility trends of N. gonorrhoeae need to be monitored closely in order to establish appropriate local empirical therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Rock Phosphate Solubilization in Submerged Cultures Containing Some Agro-Industrial Residues

Khadiga A. Abou-Taleb, Shimaa A. Amin, Hemmat M. Abdelhady, Zahra H. Tayeb

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/41624

Aims: To solubilize rock phosphate in presence of agriculture wastes by microorganisms and produce fermented solution rich with soluble phosphate.

Study Design: The effect of agriculture wastes, rock phosphate concentrations and culture conditions on rock phosphate solubilization. Identification of the potential isolate.

Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Dept., Fac. of Agriculture, Ain Shams Univ., Cairo, Egypt, 2015/ 2016.

Methodology: Four isolates were tested on 7 agriculture wastes for rock phosphate solubilization. Optimization of some environmental factors. Identification of fungal isolate by 18S rRNA sequence analysis.

Results: Some agro-industrial residues (bagasse, corn cobs, black sugar cane molasses, olive cake wastes, rice straw, sugar beet waste and whey) were used as a carbon source at different treatments for highest rock phosphate solubilization (RPS) by Serratia sp. Rs7 and Rs22, and Aspergillus sp. Bf6 and RPf10 isolates. The maximum RPS was obtained by the tested bacteria and fungi when both were grown on whey and sugar beet waste as a whole medium which increased the fermentation period to 10 and 12 days. All treatments of sugar beet wastes, bagasse, rice straw and corncobs failed to support RPS by bacterial isolates. Also corn cobs showed negative effect on RPS in all treatments for fungal isolates. In serial experiments, the maximum RPS was obtained by the tested bacteria and fungi in media supplemented with 7.0 and 10.0 gL-1 RP at pH 7.0 and 5.5 inoculated with 3% standard inoculum and incubated at 30°C respectively. The fermented solution produced by Aspergillus sp. RPf10 containing higher amounts of citric acid (543.39 μgP ml-1) and indole-3-acetic acid (11.96 mgL-1) as well as higher phosphatase activity than that produced by other tested isolates. This isolate was identified as Aspergillus tubingensis RPf10.

Conclusion: the ability of Aspergillus tubingensis to convert sugar beet waste and insoluble rock phosphate into fermented solution containing maximum level of soluble phosphate, growth promoting and organic acids which can be apply this solution in future in microbial nutrient and agriculture field.