Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Assessment of River Water in Ogoloma-Okrika

H. O. Stanley, V. Alali

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/41978

This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical and bacteriological quality at                        various points of the Ogoloma-Okrika River. Using composite sampling method, a total of 5                   samples were collected at 5 different points (human excrement point (OT), refuse dump point (OW), crude oil effluent discharge point (OO), upstream (OU) and downstream (OD) of the river).                      The total heterotrophic bacterial count obtained in this study  ranged from 7.0x104 cfuml-1 to 9.95x105 cfuml-1; total coliform 20-210 MPN/100 ml; faecalcoliform 6-53 MPN/100 ml;                          Vibrio 4x103 cfuml-1-1.78x105 cfuml-1. A total number of 36 isolates were obtained from the samples. The isolates belong to the genera: Acetobacter (7.7%), Erwinia (15.3%), Planococus (19.2%) Citrobacter (23.1%), Escherichia coli (19.2%), Vibrio (19.2%), Salmonella (4%) Shigella (15.3%), Enterobacter (7.7%), Kliebsella (7.7%). Temperature ranged from 27-28°C; pH, 4.97-6.82; electrical conductivity, 6020-6540 µs; alkalinity, 80-120 ppm; total dissolved solids (TDS) 2973-3725 mgL-1; dissolved oxygen (DO) 4.3-7.8 mgL-1; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)2.5-3.5 mgL-1; chemical oxygen demand (COD) 3.2-4.9 mgL-1. Results indicate high faecal contamination of this important river used by a resident for domestic purposes. Concerns for public health safety are raised as most of the parameters monitored were found to be significantly higher than the WHO standards for safe water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Fusobacterium nucleatum among Clinical Orthodontic and Non-Orthodontic Saliva Samples

Jason Klingler, Ching Shen, Karl Kingsley

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/42698

Objectives: The oral flora is a complex ecosystem characterized by numerous bacterial species and changes to the levels of these bacteria in health, disease, and dental treatments such as orthodontics. Although some studies have documented changes in periodontal pathogen burden during orthodontic treatment using saliva, most have focused on traditional cariogenic bacteria and some periodontal pathogens, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis or Fusobacterium nucleatum– far fewer have focused on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans – commonly associated with aggressive periodontitis. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of this organism among orthodontic and non-orthodontic patients from a public dental school clinic.

Experimental Methods: Using an approved protocol, samples were taken from orthodontic (n=39) and non-orthodontic (n=45) patients. DNA was extracted and screened for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Males and females were equally represented, although a majority of patients participating in this study were Hispanics and ethnic minorities.

Results: PCR analysis of the DNA isolated from these patient samples revealed that more than half (54%) of the orthodontic samples harboured significant levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, compared with only one-quarter (25%) of samples from non-orthodontic patients.  In addition, screening for Fusobacterium nucleatum revealed a slightly increased prevalence among orthodontic patients (27%) compared with non-orthodontic patients (19%).

Conclusions: These results are significant as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been traditionally observed as facilitating heterotypic communities of overtly pathogenic organisms, compared with other gram-negative oral microbes. These heterotypic biofilm communities exhibit greatly increased capacities to resist antimicrobial drugs and other host immune factors and the capacity to facilitate heterotypic associations within the biofilm may be restricted to a few key species. This project successfully demonstrated evidence that non-invasive salivary screening of orthodontic patients may be sufficient to assess and detect changes to this periodontal pathogen – thereby increasing the potential quality and efficiency of orthodontic dental treatment among this patient population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Potential of Carvacrol and Its Effect at Sub-lethal Concentration during Low Thermal Pasteurization of Fruit Juices

Alex Tchuenchieu, Jean -Justin Essia Ngang, Carmen Pop, Sylvain Sado Kamdem, Ancuta Rotar, François -Xavier Etoa, Elena Mudura

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/42424

Aims: This study aimed at assessing the relationship between the initial antimicrobial activity of carvacrol and its effect at sub-lethal concentration when used for low thermal treatment of fruit juices.

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca for a period of 5 months.

Methodology: The antimicrobial potential of carvacrol on Escherichia coli ATCC 25922; Listeria monocytogenes 56 LY and Zygosaccharomyces bailii was evaluated through the macrodilution method. The survival of these two latter strains grown in different acid conditions was also assessed after a treatment at 55°C in pineapple, orange and watermelon juices supplemented or not with carvacrol (30 µL/L) as performed in a previous study for E. coli. For each strain, the comparative length of treatment was the time required to reduce non-acid adapted cells in watermelon juice supplemented with carvacrol by 99.9%. 

Results: Carvacrol exhibited a MBC value of 200 µL/L on E.coli; 1900 µL/L on L. monocytogenes, and a MFC value of 500 µL/L on Z. bailii. A prior growth of these microorganisms in acid conditions globally led to an enhancement of their survival ratio to heat treatment. Z. bailii inactivation was affected by the nature of the treated juice (higher in pineapple juice followed by orange juice). Supplementation of carvacrol at 30 µL/L had a positive impact on microorganisms thermal inactivation but with strength which appears to be inversely proportional to its MBC or MFC on the target strain (R2=0.98).

Conclusion: The choice of the natural aroma compound to use for such combined treatment of fruit juices should be made based on its antimicrobial potential on the contaminant microorganisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Indoor Air for Bacteria Organisms and their Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles in a Government Health Institution

S. A. Wemedo, V. K. Robinson

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/42833

Aim: To evaluate environmental bacteria isolates from a government health institution and their antimicrobial profile.

Place and Duration of Study: The sampled location was the mini Mile 3 Model Primary Health Centre, Port Harcourt, Nigeria for three months (January-March).

Methodology: Indoor air quality was investigated using the sedimentation technique in which Petri plates containing growth media were exposed to the atmosphere of the sites under study. Plates were exposed for 15 minutes at each given site. The children, post-natal, outpatient and the injection wards were the sites under study. Nutrient agar and Mannitol Salt agar were the media used to enumerate the total bacteria and Staphylococci respectively. Commercially prepared antibiotic discs with known concentrations were used to test for susceptibility of these microbes using the disc diffusion technique and test isolates were standardized using the McFarland standard.

Results: Four bacterial groups isolated were Bacillus sp (20.41%), Micrococcus sp (28.57%), Serratia sp (10.21%) and Staphylococcus sp (40.82%). The mean count for the total heterotrophic bacteria and Staphylococci counts in log10Cfu/m3 for morning sections ranged from (3.41±021-3.84±0.09) and (3.15±0.14 - 3.25±0.13) respectively; while counts for the evening sections ranged from (3.50±0.11- 3.91±0.05) (3.24±0.42 – 3.48±0.04) respectively. There was a significant difference between the morning and evening hours of the total Staphylococci at P=0.05. All the bacterial isolates were 100% susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Serratia species were 100% susceptible to ofloxacin. Staphylococci and Micrococcus species were 100% resistant to ampicillin which was 100% effective against Bacillus sp.

Conclusion: The microbial loads in this study were very high. Microbes isolated in this study are pathogenic and are known to be associated with nosocomial infections. Ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, pefloxacin and ofloxacin are best recommended for infections arising from this site.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Prevalence of Rubella Virus among Children and Adolescents in Adamawa State, Nigeria

Umar Abdullahi, Sheradine Sime

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/39740

Rubella is an infectious and generally mild childhood viral disease. The disease is of public health importance because infection acquired during early pregnancy often results in foetal abnormalities termed congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Rubella IgG antibodies among 455 children and adolescent aged between 5 and 19 years in Adamawa state, Nigeria. Sera were screened for Rubella IgG antibody using commercially produced ELISA Kit and Rub IgG kit manufactured by Genesis Diagnostic Laboratory Ltd pharmaceutical company, Henry Crubb road Littleport, UK. Of the 455 subjects screened, Rubella antibody was found in 268 samples giving an overall prevalence of 58.1% with the southern senatorial zone having the highest prevalence though not statistically significant. Rubella seroprevalence increased with age (51.1%, 63.6%, 65.1%  for the age group 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 years respectively), with females having significantly higher prevalence rate than male (67%). There was no statistically significant difference in seropositivity with regards to the type of settlement and educational level of the parents. This study shows that overall children between ages 5-19 have no antibodies to Rubella (41.1%). This is indicative of widespread viral transmission in the study population. In Nigeria, Rubella vaccine is not part of the routine immunization programme; this study can be used as a based line data to guide immunization strategy for this important viral disease. Given the serious impact of viral infection incasing congenital rubella syndrome, it is advisable to consider vaccination as a mode of prevention especially in adolescent girls.