Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteria Involved in Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Adult in Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa

S. A. M. S. N’chott, M. O. Koffi, T. Kangah-N’goran, A. Sylla, K. Horo, S. Kacou-Ngazoa, A. Kacou-N’douba, H. Faye-Kette, A. J. Djaman

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/42687

Aims: Performing diagnosis in patients with lower respiratory tract infection is still challenging and is only achieved in half of the cases by conventional methods in Côte d'Ivoire.  A few works concerning the etiologies of severe pneumonia were carried out in spite of methods of diagnosis. The present study was conducted to identify and highlight the common causative bacteria of pneumonia by culture method and through the method of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Study Design: A prospective cohort analysis was conducted for 90 adult African patients hospitalised for acute pneumonia.

Place and Duration of Study: Pneumophtisiology department (PPH) of the University Hospital Center of Cocody (Côte d'Ivoire) and laboratory of Bacteriology- Virology of Pasteur Institut of Côte d’Ivoire,  between February 2016 and October 2017.

Methodology: A total of 90 patients (42 men, 48 women, age range 18-77 years) with symptoms of acute lower respiratory infection and diagnosed with pneumonia were included. Only 33 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria and gave the consent to do fibroscopy. Culture and PCR methods were performed to isolate the most common bacteria in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid.

Results: Four bacterial isolates were identified in 33 cases (12.1%) in all patients using the culture method. This number increased to 21 (63.6%) with multiplex PCR. The most commonly identified bacteria by PCR were Streptococcus pneumoniae (15.1%) and Haemophilus influenzae (36.4%). There was a significant increase in PCR method compared to the culture in terms of bacterial detection rate (P = 0.05).

Conclusion: Real-time PCR tests were very sensitive and fast. The prevalence of bacteria and multiple agents detected by real-time PCR versus culture was considerably higher.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Using Different Drying Technique on the Level of Toxigenic Aspergillus flavus in Maize (Zea mays) Seeds

Jeff- Agboola Yemisi Adefunke, Jayeoba Mobolaji Elizabeth

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/35561

Deterioration of maize is mainly affected by moisture content, temperature, relative humidity, storage conditions period of drying and method, fungal growth, and insect pests. The growth of Aspergillus flavus in maize is facilitated by hot and humid conditions and they pose a major risk through production of mycotoxins. To maintain high-quality maize for both short- and long-term storage, maize must be protected from weather, growth of microorganisms, and pests. The Influence of drying on the toxigenic Aspergillus flavus level of maize seeds was investigated. Different drying method used are; constructed wooden solar dryer lined with aluminum foil, constructed wooden solar dryer lined with black polythene, calabash (Crescentia cujete), tray lined with plantain (Musa paradisiaca) leaf, tray lined with Thaumatococcus daniellii leaf. ] Maize seeds were inoculated with spore suspension of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus.  The inoculated maize seeds were dried using different drying methods provided and the growth performance of the A. flavus was monitored on inoculating chamber with the spores counted at weekly interval.  After three days  of drying, inoculated maize grains dried with wooden solar dryer lined with aluminum foil  and calabash were found to have the lowest spore levels of Aspergillus flavus counted with haemocytometer counting chamber (5.50x105 sfu/l and 9.50 x105 sfu/ml) as compared to the value of spores counted from the other drying method used. There was a continuous decrease in the values of moisture content in all the samples from day 1 to day 3. The highest reduction was also observed in samples of solar dryer lined with aluminum foil. Considering the different materials used for drying maize in this study,  Calabash and solar dryer lined with aluminum foil prove  to be more reliable and efficient in reducing the sporulation level of A. flavus

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fermentation on the Nutritional Composition of Roselle Calyx Obtained from Ekiti and Benue State, Nigeria

Anthony Okhonlaye Ojokoh, Oluwabunmi Olabisi Adaja, Ayomide Olubunmi Omojokun

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/42314

Aim: The study was conducted to investigate the effect of fermentation on the nutritional qualities of Roselle calyx from two States in Nigeria.

Study Design: Roselle calyx was obtained from various locations and grouped into four: fermented naturally (FN), fermented with coconut husk ashes (FWCHA), Fermented with cocoa pod ashes (FWCPA), Fermented with Gmelina tree ashes (FWGTA), while unfermented samples served as control.

Place and Duration of Study: Fermentation of samples and isolation of microorganisms were carried out in the department of Microbiology while chemical analysis was carried out in Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria between February 2015 and October 2016.

Methodology: Roselle calyx was fermented naturally (FN), fermented with coconut husk ashes (FWCHA), Fermented with cocoa pod ashes (FWCPA), Fermented with Gmelina tree ashes (FWGTA) separately for 72 hours. The nutrient, antinutrient and mineral compositions of raw and fermented calyx were determined using standard procedures.

Results: For samples obtained from Ekiti, protein and carbohydrate increased, crude fibre, fat and moisture decreased and ash content increased except in FN when compared to raw samples. Samples obtained from Benue showed an increase in protein, fibre and ash contents, an increase in carbohydrate content except for FWCPA while moisture and fat decreased significantly. Mineral content of samples obtained from Ekiti revealed a significant increase in sodium, calcium, magnesium and iron, a decrease in potassium and no significant difference in zinc content. Samples collected from Benue showed an increase in calcium, decrease in potassium except in FWCHA, magnesium content varied, and there was no significant difference in sodium and zinc. All antinutrients analyzed (phytate, glycoside, tannin, and phenol) decreased significantly in the samples obtained from both Ekiti and Benue state.

Conclusion: The nutritional composition and antinutrient content of the roselle calyx fermented with different methods varied significantly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Proteolytic and Lipolytic Bacteria in Cow Dung and Abattoir Effluent from Ekiti General Abattoir, Ekiti State, Nigeria

T. A. Ogunnusi, O. Olorunfemi

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/42508

Aims: To isolate and identify bacteria with proteolytic and lipolytic properties from cow dung sample and abattoir effluent. Also, to determine the proteolytic and lipolytic activities of the bacteria isolated and carry out quantitative analysis of the enzymes produced.

Place and Duration of Study: Cow dung from the rearing ground and abattoir effluent were collected into sterile conical flasks each from Ekiti State General abattoir, Ado-Ekiti in March 2017 and brought to the laboratory for analysis.

Methodology: Serial dilution was carried out on the samples and 1 ml each of the required diluents was dispensed into Petri dishes and nutrient agar added for isolation of bacteria. Biochemical tests were carried out on the isolates for identification. Protease assay was carried out using UV/Visible spectrophotometer at 280 nm while lipase assay was done by simple titration method using Tween 20 as a substrate on the bacterial isolates. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 20.

Results: Twelve bacterial isolates were obtained from the samples and included Providencia stuartii, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus sp, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Streptococcus sp, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Streptococcus sp had the highest activity for protease assay with value of 766.50±0.707a mg/ml after 24 hours incubation period while the lowest activities were observed for Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus luteus with values of 720.00 ±1.414b mg/ml each and not significantly different. The production of protease by Streptococcus sp was significantly different to that produced by Bacillus cereus; the values were 766.50 ±0.707a and 720.00 ±1.414b mg/ml. For lipase assay, Pseudomonas aeruginosa had the highest activity with value of 6.0x10-3 ±0.0001a while Escherichia coli recorded the lowest lipase activity of 2.2x10-3±0.007d mg/ml. The production of lipase by Staphylococcus aureus was significantly different to that produced by Escherichia coli; the values were 3.0x10-3± 0.0001c and 2.2x10-3±0.007d mg/ml. 

Conclusion: This study showed that bacteria isolated from cow dung and abattoir effluent had the ability to produce protease and lipase enzymes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Malaria Infection among People Living with HIV/AIDS at Federal Medical Center Keffi (Nassarawa State), Nigeria

Bello, Bashirat, Ishaleku, David

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/43154

Background: Malaria and HIV are among the most important health problems of our time overlap extensively and co-infecting large numbers of people. The study was designed to determine the prevalence of malaria infection among those living with HIV/AIDS within age and sex groups.

Methods: A total of 200 blood samples of patients within the age range of 1 to 60 years old, attending Federal Medical Center, Keffi were examined for the presence of malaria parasites by thick blood film using Geimsa stain. Standard laboratory procedures were used for HIV screening and plasmodium parasites identification.

Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) among age groups; with (1-10), (11-20) and (41-50) have the highest prevalence rate of infection (71.4%), while age (51-60) have the lowest prevalence (40%). In relation to gender female have the higher prevalence rate of (67.2%), while male have (61.5%). The research also revealed that patients with CD4 cell count less than 200 cells µℓ-1 has the higher prevalence rate of malaria infection (36.1%).

Conclusion: This indicates that HIV/AIDS patients have the highest rate of malaria and this could be as a result of immune compromised among the sample group. Which showed that female                      has the highest malaria infection rate together with age (0-10), (11-20) and (41-50) among age groups.