Open Access Original Research Article

Exposure to Plant Extract Causes the Variation of Antibiotic Susceptibility of Two Bacterial Strains (Salmonella Serotype Typhi and Staphylococcus aureus)

Fabrice Ezo’o Mengo, Stéphanie Claire Tchonang, Hermann Ludovic Kemaleu, Sylvain Leroy Sado Kamdem, Jean Justin Essia Ngang

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/43446

Introduction: Several authors have associated the development of antibiotic resistance to the use of antibiotics. But this development of resistance could also be associated with plant extracts. This article explores the impact of exposure to different plant extracts of Salmonella serotype Typhi and Staphylococcus aureus on their sensitivity to antibiotics.

Methods: According to the informations obtained from traditional medicine healers, 13 plants powders from different parts were selected to compose mixtures that were used to produce the extract by decoction. The susceptibility test through inhibition diameter analyses and the minimal inhibition concentration were performed using the decoctions and the two strains. Different microorganisms were exposed to a fresh broth containing the extract at fixed or increased concentration in every 24 h for 14 days. Subsequently, after the 14 days, these strains were grown in the same broth renewed at 24 h without added extract for another 14 days. Antibiogram using three antibiotics was performed at 48 h. Variation of inhibition diameter was used to evaluate the impact of extract exposure to the sensitivity.

Results: The two strains subjected to a molecular pressure of the plant extracts acquired resistance to the antibiotics tested, regardless of the concentration of the plant extract used for the exposure. The sensitivity of Salmonella Typhi exposed to two of the decoctions decreased vis-a-vis the three antibiotics tested and this decrease persisted 14 days repeated sowing in new broth without plant extract despite the lack of antimicrobial. In addition, exposure of Staphylococcus aureus to the extracts of Chromoleana odorata and Erigeron floribundus showed a decrease in sensitivity of this strain to Erythromycin. But this sensitivity compared to other antibiotics has decreased after non antimicrobial exposure.

Conclusion: This study shows that continuous exposure of bacteria to some plant extracts reduces the sensitivity of these strains. As a result, the development of antibiotic resistance is not only related to the uncontrolled use of antibiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Nutritional Composition and Efficacy of Selected Spices in Southern Nigeria against Some Food Spoilage Fungi

B. N. Effiong, U. S. Udofia, N. Maduka

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/41998

The efficacy of antifungal property of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta), Aidan fruit (Tetrapleura tetraptera) and Black pepper (Piper nigrum) was tested against three fungal isolates implicated in food spoilage. The fungal isolates from stale bread, beans and spoilt onion are Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp. and Penicillium sp. Nutritional composition and antifungal efficacy of the spices was determined using conventional methods and poisoned food technique, respectively. Results obtained showed that the moisture content of the tested spices is low but they are all rich in carbohydrate. Fat content (12.70%), protein content (11.70%), carbohydrate content (62.94%) and energy value (372.20 Kcal) of Alligator pepper is higher and its fibre content is lower than that of the other two spices. Protein content (0.5%) of Black pepper is the lowest among the spices, but on the contrary in terms of ash content. Based on statistical analysis, the spices were significantly different at <0.05 probability. In terms of clear zone of inhibition, ethanolic extract of the three spices had more antifungal effect compared with the aqueous extract whereas the antifungal efficacy of the extracts increased with the increase in concentration. The highest mycelia growth inhibition (4.67 mm) was recorded by ethanolic extract (1.0%) of Aidan fruit tested against Mucor sp. Based on these findings, ethanolic extracts from the selected spices could be used as an alternative to chemical preservatives to prolong shelf life of foods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biodegradation Potential of Bacteria Isolated from Crude Oil Polluted Site in South South, Nigeria

S. A. Wemedo, R. R. Nrior, A. A. Ike

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/42680

Aims: This study aimed to determine the biodegradative potential of crude oil by Chryseobacterium sp. and Lysinibacillus fusiformis isolated from Crude Oil site in Gokana LGA, of Rivers State.

Study Design: Research was designed to evaluate the speed of degradation of crude oil by bacterial species over a period of 28 days.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out in the Microbiology Laboratory of Rivers State University from March to April 2018.

Methodology: Four experimental set ups were used: mineral salt broth with crude oil only (Control), Chryseobacterium sp. in mineral salt culture with crude oil (Set-up 1), Lysinibacillus fusiformis in mineral salt culture with crude oil (Set-up 2) and Chryseobacterium sp.+Lysinibacillus fusiformis in mineral salt culture with crude oil (Set-up 3). Analysis of pH and Total Viable Counts was carried out at weekly intervals while Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon was carried out at bi-weekly intervals.

Results: Results showed a steady decline in pH from almost neutral (6.1) to acidic with mixed culture set up having the lowest value of 4.19 < Lysinibacillus fusiformis set up of 4.22 < Chryseobacterium sp. set up of 4.34. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon followed the same trend of steady decline from 74.8 mg/L with Lysinibacillus fusiformis species having the least value of 40.44 mg/L < mixed culture of 44.85 mg/L < Chryseobacterium sp. of 51.08 mg/L. Total Viable Counts (Log10 cfu/mL) of bacteria showed increase in growth in all set ups. Lysinibacillus fusiformis increased from 5.10±0.01 to 6.85±0.05 > the consortium increased from 5.21±0.01 to 6.84±0.04 > Chryseobacterium sp. increased from 5.30±0.01 to 6.73±0.06 from beginning to end of the experiment.

Conclusion: Results showed that Lysinibacillus fusiformis had greater capacity to degrade crude oil, followed by the mixed culture and lastly, Chryseobacterium sp. These bacterial species can be harnessed and used for clean-up of crude oil contaminated environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity of Spent Phone Batteries on Microflora in Marine, Brackish and Freshwater Ecosystems

Salome Ibietela Douglas, Renner Renner Nrior, Lucky Barinedum Kpormon

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/44033

Aim: To analyse and compare the effect of two products of spent phone batteries on bacteria    (Pseudomonas sp.) and fungi (Mucor sp.) in marine, brackish and freshwater using standard toxicological bioassay.

Study Design: The study employs experimental design, statistical analysis of the data and interpretation.

Place and Duration of Study: Freshwater was collected from Biara and Marine samples were collected from Bodo City both of Gokana L.G.A, while brackish water sample was collected from Eagle Island, all in Rivers State, Nigeria. These samples were transported with ice pack to the Microbiology Laboratory of the Rivers State University, for analyses within 6 hours. While Spent phone batteries (product A and B) were obtained from the phone market, Garrison junction, Aba road, Port Harcourt.

Methodology: Toxicity testing procedures were carried out by preparing stock toxicant solution (four (4) grams of the spent phone battery content put into one hundred milliliter (100 ml) each of sterilized water samples separately), from which different concentrations (%); 0, 5, 25, 50 and 75, were made; each was inoculated with one milliliter (1 ml) of the test organisms (Pseudomonas sp. and Mucor sp.) in a separate set-up and tested for duration 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours respectively using the spread plate techniques. The bacterial cultures were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours while fungal cultures were incubated for three (3) days at 35°C. The logarithms of total viable counts were used as a directory to determine the percentage survival and mortality. Median lethal concentration (LC50) was determined using the formulae; LC50 = LC100  -  ∑ conc. Diff. × mean % mortality  /  % control. Data obtained were analyzed statistically using SPSS version 22.

Results: The results revealed that percentage logarithm survival of test organisms decreased with increasing exposure time and concentrations. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the mobile phone batteries increases in the following order: (Note: the higher the LC50, the Lower the toxic effect) for Pseudomonas sp. Product B in freshwater (57.54%) < Product B in Brackish water (57.99%) < Product A in freshwater water (58.22%) < in brackish water (58.68%) < Product A in brackish water (58.88%) Product A in marine water (58.99%). While for Mucor sp.; Product A in freshwater (61.33%) < Product B in freshwater (61.55%) < Product B in brackish water (65.66%) < Product A in brackish water (71.88%)< Product A in marine water (71.88%) Product B in fresh water (74.22%).

Conclusion: The effect of Product B in fresh water is the most toxic having the lowest while Product A in marine has the lowest toxicity effect. These results show that if spent phone batteries are disposed into the aquatic environment, Pseudomonas sp will be more affected than the Mucor sp.

Open Access Review Article

Oncolytic Parvoviruses: An Emerging Frontier for Targeted Gene Therapy of Human Carcinoma

O. I. Afolami, A. K. Onifade, M. K. Oladunmoye, D. J. Arotupin

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/36776

Replication-competent oncolytic viruses (OVs) have been widely employed as vectors for cancer therapy because they possess the ability to selectively infect, replicate in and destroy tumor cells, while sparing their normal counterparts. Among OVs, the Rodent protoparvovirus 1 (RoPV) species within the Parvoviridae family deserves special consideration for its promising anticancer properties. Rodent inhabiting members such as the rat H-1PV virus attract high levels of interest as novel anticancer agents, because they can replicate autonomously in oncogene-transformed cells and exert both oncolytic effects in various cell cultures and animal models, while being non-pathogenic for humans. The H-1PV parvoviral capsid has been engineered to improve its affinity for tumor cells for greater oncosuppressive effects with an entry deficient three-dimensional (3D) Insilico model of the H-1PV wild-type capsid developed for increased affinity of the virus to pancreatic tumor cells; resulting in enhanced NK cell-mediated killing of pancreatic tumor cells. This review explains the anticancer properties of oncolytic parvoviruses, the bioethical issues associated with their use as therapeutic agents and the prospects of parvovirus-based cancer immunotherapy to explore new prospects of treatments for human carcinoma.