Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Sorghum “Ogi” on Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli

T. T. Adebolu, D. V. Adediwura, E. A. Aiyenuro

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/44011

Aims: To investigate and compare the antibacterial activity of sorghum “ogi” slurry, liquor and that of conventional antibiotics against diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli.

Place and Duration of Study: This research work was carried out at the Department of Microbiology Laboratory, Federal University of Technology, Akure. Ondo state, Nigeria between June and September, 2017.

Methodology: The pH and Titratable acidity (TTA) of ‘ogi' slurry and liquor were determined at the 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of fermentation. Microorganisms were isolated from both the slurry and liquor via a pour plate method. Identification and characterisation of various bacterial isolates including the stock culture (Escherichia coli) were based on Gram-staining technique and biochemical tests. The fungal isolates were identified by their morphological features and lactophenol cotton blue staining procedure. Antibacterial activity of 0.1 ml of 72 hours fermented liquor and slurry of Sorghum “ogi” including organisms isolated from the liquor and slurry were tested against Escherichia coli and were separately determined via agar well diffusion method. Antibacterial activity of conventional antibiotics such as Tetracycline, Amoxycylin and Ciprofloxacin were also determined. SPSS was used to analyse all the data in this research work.

Results: Bacteria isolated from the slurry and liquor of sorghum ‘ogi’ include: Bacillus species, Corynebacterium species, Lactobacillus plantarum, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus species. Fungi isolated include: Mucor mucedo, Penicillium notatum, Rhizopus species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Corynebacterium sp, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Lactobacillus plantarum exerted growth inhibitory activity on the diarrhoeagenic E. coli used. Staphylococcus epidermidis exerted the highest growth inhibitory effect. Aspergillus niger exerted higher growth inhibitory effect on most of the E. coli used than Penicillium notatum.

Conclusion: This study has shown that Sorghum “ogi” can be used as an alternative therapy to antibiotics to treat people who are suffering from diarrhoea caused by Escherichia coli.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Analysis of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) from a Farm in Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria

L. U. Enurah, C. l. Nwosuh, D. O. Ehizibolo, N. M. Sati, P. E. Emenna, I. Shittu, E. T. Obishakin, I. O. Nwagbo

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/44386

This study describes the genetic analysis of an atypical infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) detected from an outbreak in a poultry farm in Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria in 2017. The farm with seven thousand, six hundred and eleven (7,611) four weeks old vaccinated pullets had 76.2% mortality (5,796 dead birds) as a result of the outbreak. Thirty-two bursae of Fabricius samples showing lesions of IBD were aseptically collected for IBDV antigen detection and molecular characterisation. All the tested samples were positive by the agar-gel immunodiffusion test (AGDT) for IBDV antigen while the VP2 gene could be detected in 60% of these samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One PCR positive sample was sequenced. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences obtained were compared to sequences from GenBank. The IBDV strain detected (IBDV/VOM/NG/2017) was distinct from the attenuated vaccine strain used on the farm, but formed cluster in the very virulent (vv) IBDV group in the VV2-1 subcluster and was most closely related to previously published IBDV strains from Nigeria (Plateau 104/NG/2010, and more recently Bauchi127/NG/2014) with 98% nucleotide identity. Substitution mutations were observed across the VP2 region of the recent vvIBDV strain detected. This finding provides an update on the epidemiology and molecular dynamics of IBDV in Nigeria with implications for control.

Open Access Original Research Article

The effect of Aloe vera Gel on Microorganisms Associated with the Deterioration of Sweet Orange Fruits (Citrus sinensis)

O. O. Oni, A. O. Olalemi, O. B. Balogun

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/40678

The effect of Aloe vera gel on microorganisms associated with the deterioration of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) fruits was investigated. Sweet orange fruit was obtained from selected markets and farm in Akure, Nigeria. Microorganisms associated with the deterioration were identified using microbiological techniques. A total of nine fungi and six bacteria were isolated from the orange fruits. Fungal isolates include Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Fusarium oxysporium, Penicillum digitatum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium italicum, Mucormucedo, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Geotrichium candidum, while the bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, B. substilis, Serratia marcesens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The average fungal counts ranged from 2.4 × 103 cfu/g to 5.3 × 103 sfu/g and bacterial count ranged from 1.4 × 105 cfu/g to 3.6 × 105 cfu/g. Pathogenicity test revealed that Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillum digitatum, Penicillum italicum, Aspergillus flavus, Fusariun oxysporium were able to induce spoilage in apparently healthy orange fruits. At 100% concentration of Aloe vera gel, E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae demonstrated the highest susceptibility among bacterial and fungal isolates respectively. This study revealed that Aloe vera gel was partially effective in controlling the growth of bacterial and fungal isolates associated with the deterioration of sweet orange. Good agricultural practices, adequate storage facilities and good handling practices must be put in place to reduce the incidence of microbial spoilage of sweet oranges to increase agricultural output, profits and maintain food security.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Fungal Species Associated with Fruits Spoilage in Bwari Market Abuja, Nigeria

F. M. Mairami, R. W. Ndana, I. D. Umar

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/42620

Spoilage of fruits imparts great economic loss and a potential health hazard to the general populace. A research was conducted to identify the different types of fungal flora responsible for the spoilage of fruits in Bwari market, Abuja, Nigeria. Seventy fruits that showed decayed symptomatology and thirty healthy ones were procured from Bwari market. Sections of the rotten and healthy fruits were obtained using a sterile blade, inoculated onto Potato Dextrose Agar and incubated at 27°C for five days. All other mycological techniques were carried out using standard methods. The result showed the presence of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus nigricans, Mucor mucedo, and Fusarium oxysporum. However, Aspergillus niger. (58.06%) was found to be the most dominant spoilage causing organism on fruits vended in Bwari market while Fusarium oxysporum (9.68%) was the least abundant fungal flora. However, the pathogenicity of Rhizopus sp. was found to be higher than that of all the remaining fungal species. This can be attributed to the predisposal and nature of fruits handling and storage in the market. Thus, because all the fungal species identified were known to produce toxins that could impart severe food poisoning, attention of the authorities concerned and the health care providers is needed towards orienting the vendors on the hygienic methods of storing fruits to prolong their shelf-life and the general populace on the dangers associated with the consumption of fruits from Bwari market without thorough washing with saline water more especially those fruits that showed spoilage symptomatology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characteristic Properties of Derived Wort from Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) Challenged Sorghum Samples

F. T. Afolabi, A. A. Onilude

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/43156

Aim: This study aimed at investigating lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as starter cultures for the improvement of alcoholic beverages.

Methodology: Sorghum was obtained from Bodija market and also from the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Ibadan. LAB were isolated from spontaneously-fermenting sorghum.  The abilities of the LAB strains to produce antimicrobials and their antagonistic activity against known cereal pathogens were used to select the best three strains for further work. The selected strains were applied singly and in combination at inoculum concentration of 2.3 x 104 cells/mL for five days to challenge sorghum seeds prior to malting and wort production. Sorghum wort was fermented for five days with Saccharomyces carlsbergensis. Physiological and nutritional characteristics of the unchallenged and challenged sorghum, and fermentative characteristics of the wort were determined.

Results: One hundred and twenty seven strains of LAB were isolated and identified as L. plantarum (32), L. brevis (31), L. fermentum (25), L. delbrueckii (8), L. casei (12) and L. acidophilus (19).  The pH reduced from 6.50+0.03 to 2.93+0.03. L. plantarum (WS) and L. casei (WS) also had the same total residual sugar content with value of 0.97+0.03% at day 5.  L. plantarum (WS) and L. casei (WS) produced the highest Total titratable acidity (TTA) with values of 4.77+0.03% while control (RS) had the least TTA with value of 3.97+0.09%.  Control (WS) had the highest protein content of 1.17+0.03%, L. casei (RS) had the least protein content with value of 0.93+0.03%. L. plantarum (WS) had the highest FAN content of 29.97+0.19mg/L while the least Free amino nitrogen (FAN) was produced by control (RS) with value of 19.37+0.07mg/L. Fermentation of the unchallenged wort with pH of 6.2 yielded ethanol content of 2.2 %. The subsequent fermentation produced 4.8 % ethanol.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated the use of biological control methods, involving the use of LAB as starter cultures. It improved the quality of the end products in brewing. The use of LAB as starter cultures is an alternative treatment to chemical treatment which can be used to control microbial contamination during sorghum malting.