Open Access Original Research Article

High Susceptibility of Fosfomycin to Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated at Tertiary Care Hospital of Nepal

Sikha Wagle, Bhoj Raj Khanal, Birendra Raj Tiwari

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/44514

Background: Antibiotic resistance in uropathogens is a worldwide problem. Empirical therapy of urinary tract infection (UTI) is based on the susceptibility patterns of locally isolated bacteria in a given time period. Escherichia coli (E.coli), the most common pathogen causing UTI has developed resistance against most of the antibiotics for empirical use. Fosfomycin is one of the best antibiotics to treat UTI, however very little information is available about the susceptibility rate of E. coli to fosfomycin in Nepal.

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the fosfomycin susceptibility pattern against uropathogenic E. coli isolated from January to June 2016 in a tertiary care hospital of Nepal. Methods: A total of 242 E.coli urinary isolates were included in this study. The isolated organisms were identified by conventional methods. The antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by modified disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fosfomycin was performed by E-test. Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase production was screened and confirmed by double disc synergy test.

Results: E. coli were the most common pathogen isolated and were highly resistant to common antibiotics for oral use such as fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins and cotrimoxazole. However, 98% of E. coli isolates were found susceptible to fosfomycin.

Conclusions: E. coli urinary isolates revealed a high level of resistance to all the antibiotics tested with the exception of fosfomycin.  Fosfomycin showed the highest efficacy against E. coli and is the best choice for empirical treatment in Nepal. This study revealed that quinolones, cephalosporins and cotrimoxazole cannot be used for empirical treatment of UTI in Nepal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Single Cell Protein Production from Torula Yeast (Cyberlindnera sp.) Using Banana Peel Hydrolysate

Tamene Milkessa Jiru, Birara Melku

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/44801

Introduction: Single cell protein is a source of protein derived from one-celled organisms (algae, yeasts, fungi or bacteria) grown on different carbon sources and is used as a substitute for protein-rich supplement for human and animal feeds.

Methods: In this study, ten yeast isolates from saw dust samples that were obtained from small scale wood processing enterprises from Gondar town, Ethiopia were screened and identified through morphological, cultural and physiological tests.

Results: From the different yeast isolates, an isolate SDY6 was found to be Torula yeast (Cyberlindnera sp.). The biomass production capacity of this yeast isolate was evaluated using banana peel hydrolysate under batch and aerobic conditions in which pH and temperature were adjusted to 4.5 and 30°C, respectively. (NH4)2SO4 was added to the banana peel hydrolysate to increase biomass yield. The produced biomass was measured at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Maximum biomass of 8.82±1.21 g/L was produced at 48 h incubation. On the other hand, crude protein content of the product was analysed using Kjeldahl apparatus. About 10.25±2.73% of maximum crude protein content was obtained by this yeast.

Conclusion: In conclusion, a higher biomass yield and crude protein content can be obtained from Torula yeast (Cyberlindnera sp.) using banana peel hydrolysate as a substrate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Culture-Dependent Analysis of Endophytic Bacterial Community of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) in Different Soils and Climates

Ramesh Raj Puri, Fumihiko Adachi, Masayuki Omichi, Yuichi Saeki, Akihiro Yamamoto, Shohei Hayashi, Kazuhito Itoh

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/45442

Aims: To examine the effects of soil and climatic conditions on community structure of the sweet potato bacterial endophytes.

Study Design: Sweet potato plants were cultivated in different soils and locations combinations and the endophytic bacterial isolates from the tubers were examined to clarify the effect of soil and climatic conditions on the microbial community.

Place and Duration of Study: The plants were cultivated in Fukagawa, Matsue and Miyazaki in Japan for ca. 3 months.

Methodology: Bacterial isolates were characterised based on their morphologies and the representative colonies were purified for identification by analysing the partial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Endophytic bacterial community was analysed based on phylum/class and genus levels.

Results: Sixty two colonies were isolated and identified. γ-Proteobacteria (96%), β-Proteobacteria (87%) and Actinobacteria (88%) dominated in the samples cultivated in Fukagawa, Matsue and Miyazaki soils at the corresponding locations, respectively. When the soil samples were used in the different locations, the above mentioned location-specific phyla increased at the new sites. The endophytic bacterial population was also affected by the cultivating locations. It was suggested that the location rather than the soil influenced on the endophytic community and population.

Conclusion: The cultivating locations were more important factor than the soils to determine the sweet potato endophytic bacterial community and population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacterial Burden of Vegetables Salad Sold in Some Fast Food Centers in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Amala, Smart Enoch, Agha, Ifeoma Christiana

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/43828

Introduction: The demand for vegetables salad is high because it contains essential ingredients good for health. Its importance in diets is advocated by nutritionists but the consumer may be exposed to risk such as infection. Pathogens may contaminate raw vegetables and cause food borne illness or outbreak.

Aim: The aim of this work is to isolate and identify bacteria associated with vegetables salad in Port Harcourt.

Methodology: A total of 100 samples of ready to eat vegetables salad were examined, ten (10) samples were purchased from each fast food centre. Out of the 10 samples, five (5) were purchased in the morning, while 5 were purchased in the afternoon. In a wide mouth sterile glass container, 10g of vegetables salad were added to 90mL of prepared sterile normal saline and subsequent serial dilution were made by adding 1ml to 9ml of diluents to 103 and 0.1ml of last dilutions were plated by spread plate technique on both nutrient and MacConkey agar. The plates were incubated 370C for 18-24 hours and examined for growth.

Results: The bacteria isolated from vegetables salad were Staphylococcus aureus (45%), Escherichia coli (36%) and Bacillus sp (18%) respectively. The percentage occurrences of bacteria isolated in morning were 35.6% whereas the isolates in afternoon were 64.4%. The viable count from the vegetables salad ranged from 2x103 to 6.5 x103 cfu/mL

Conclusion: Vegetables meant for preparation of vegetables salad should be properly washed with good water and handled hygienically to avoid contamination. Prepared vegetables salad should be consumed shortly after preparation to avoid multiplication of contaminating bacteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Chrysophyllum albidum Stems Bark

Afees Adebayo Oladejo, Mashanty Obem Oyama, Kehinde Olufeyisayo Ayeni, Ebun-Olorun Ayo, Adebowale Samuel Oyerinde

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/32983

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungi activities of ethanolic and methanolic extracts from Chrysophyllum albidum stem bark. The crude extracts were screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger at different concentrations (3.125 mg/mL, 6.25 mg/mL, 12.5 mg/mL, 25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL) using the agar well diffusion technique. The ethanolic extracts had stronger inhibitory effects on test organisms than the methanolic extracts. The antimicrobial activity observed with the ethanolic extract ranged between 10 and 21.5 mm with no detectable activity on Aspergillus niger. Stronger antimicrobial activity was observed with the methanolic crude extracts at all concentrations with all test organisms.  The result of this study is indicative that C. albidum stem bark extracts can be used in the treatment of infections.