Open Access Short Research Article
Xylopic acid is one of the most abundant constituents in Xylopia aethiopica. Various studies have shown that the compound possesses a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity.
In this study, the antimicrobial activities of novel ester, amide and de-acetyl derivatives of xylopic acid were investigated by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC).
The broth dilution method using microtitre plate was employed in the antimicrobial assay.
The ester derivatives were the most active, with MIC values of up to 160µg/mL. The benzyl amide and the ester of de-acetyl xylopic acid generally exhibited lower antimicrobial activity with MICs of up to 320µg/mL
All the synthesized derivatives showed good antimicrobial activity and proved more active than the parent xylopic acid against the test organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyrogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans).
Open Access Original Research Article
A study was conducted in order to assess the bacteria associated with postharvest decay of cold storage potato. Rotten potatoes were collected from cold storage of Homna upazilla under Comilla district of Bangladesh. The experiment was conducted in the MS Laboratory of Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Bangladesh. Four different bacteria (species) were isolated from the different rotten potato tubers using standard bacteriological analysis or Standard dilution method. The isolated bacteria were Pectobacterium carotovorum, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. Among the bacteria isolated and identified from rotten potatoes the highest frequency was found in Pectobacterium (46%) followed by Ralstonia (26%) and Pseudomonas (13.3%) and Bacillus (13.3%). Bacteria were identified based on morphological and biochemical tests. All the isolated bacteria showed positive results except Bacillus spp in potato soft rotting test. Pectobacterium, Ralstonia solanacearum and Pseudomonas spp. were pathogenic for storage potato while Bacillus spp. was possibly a secondary micro flora or saprophyte that manifested as contaminants.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aim: This study was conducted to determine the bacterial counts in unprocessed bovine milk among different sub locations, milk sources and replicates in different months having different seasons.
Study Design: A cross-sectional study design was employed whereby milk samples from randomly selected production points and outlets were collected.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Ndivisi ward, Bungoma County, Kenya, between October 2016 to December 2016.
Methodology: 100µl of each sample was placed onto plates with plate count agar (PCA) using pour plate method to determine bacterial counts. Bacterial communities were isolated from the samples cultured on MacConkey agar and Blood agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood which were later enriched and purified on nutrient agar. The bacteriological status of milk was assessed by total plate count, isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria. Data on bacteriological quality of milk was summarized using statistical analysis; means, standard deviation and variance. The difference in bacterial counts (CFU/ml) between sub locations, sources of milk and replicates in the study was assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Statistical significance was set at p=0.05 using a computer package, SPSS software version 20.0.
Results: A total 486 were collected but only 235 samples (48.4%) were contaminated. Staphylococcus aureus was (28.1%) in abundance, pathogenic Escherichia coli (21.7%), pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.1%) Bacillus subtilis (11.5%), Citrobacter freundii (10.2%), and Klebsiella pnemoniae (9.4%) and they cause mastitis, food poisoning and diarrhoea. The presence of bacteria in milk in Ndivisi ward is associated with poor milk handling practices and contamination.
Conclusion: Milk in Ndivisi ward is contaminated hence not suitable for human consumption. High bacterial counts at production (single animal) are the main cause of mastitis in dairy animals.