Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Charcoal Filters Integrated with Moringa oleifera Seed Extracts on Microbial Population in Water from Unprotected Sources of Kapseret Division, Kenya

G. Chepkwony, E. Mwamburi, B. Makumba

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2019/44978

This study was carried out in Kapseret Division of Uasin Gishu County. Random sampling was used to identify 5 different rivers in the study area from which water samples were collected and analyzed using standard methods. A water extract from the seeds of M. oleifera was applied to the treatment sequence of coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation, followed by charcoal filtration. Each of the collected water samples were analyzed at the Eldoret Water and Sanitation Company. Data analysis was computed using SPSS. Analysis of variance test was conducted to assess whether statistically significant (p< 0.05) variations existed among the treatments given to assess their effectiveness in water treatment. In this study, the integration of M. oleifera seed suspension with charcoal filter showed a lot of potential in terms of water treatment with respect to bacteriological quality. Total coliforms were significantly reduced by 92.36% while fecal coliforms were significantly reduced by 99.23% with a p-value of 0.003 in a combined treatment of Moringa oleifera and charcoal filter. The integrated treatment also reduced BOD of river water by 50.66%. The M. oleifera integrated charcoal filter system if carefully studied and implemented could clarify all types of turbid and wastewater. It is also expected that a 100% disinfection rate, faster flow rates and shorter residence time with little clogging and backwashing of filter may be the potentials of this hybrid system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Vaginal Candidiasis in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women Attending Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida Specialist Hospital and General Hospital, Minna Niger State, Nigeria

K. T. Mumuney, M. E. Abalaka

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2019/45762

Candidiasis is a fungal infection due to any type of Candida (a type of yeast). Vaginal candidiasis is common during pregnancy and may impact negatively on the health of the woman. The aim of this study is to determine and compare the prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among pregnant and non-pregnant women attending Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida (IBB) Specialist Hospital and General Hospital in Minna, Niger state, Nigeria were screened for vaginal candidiasis. High vaginal swab (HVS) were each collected from 20 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant women attending General Hospital, Minna also 20 pregnant women and 20 non pregnant women at IBB (Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida) Specialist Hospital, Minna, Niger state, Nigeria and screened for vaginal candidiasis. Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) incorporated with chloramphenicol was used to isolate the Candida species in the HVS samples. Candida isolates were identified and characterized using standard methods including: colonial morphology (macroscopic characteristics), microscopy (Sugar fermentation) tests. Confirmation of Candida albicans was done with the Germ Tube Test. (Gram staining and Lactophenol cotton blue staining) and biochemical (Sugar fermentation) tests. Thirteen samples tested showed positive for candida species. The species identified were Candida albicans (Nine), Candida krusei (two), Candida tropicalis (One), and Candida pseudotropicalis (one) for pregnant women in General Hospital. Ten samples taken from pregnant women in Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida Specialist Hospital were positive reactions for Candida species. Nine out of twenty samples collected from non-pregnant women in General Hospital were Candida species while three out of twenty samples from non-pregnant women from Ibrahim Babangida Specialist Hospital tested positive to Candida species.  Within the samples space 45% and 25% of the pregnant women considered in the study in General Hospital and IBB Specialist Hospital respectively had Candida albicans, while amongst the non-pregnant sample space, the infection rate was 10% for both study locations.

This result showed vaginal candidiasis is more prevalent in pregnant women than non-pregnant women which may lead to pregnancy complications like abortions, premature birth, low birth weight and other morbidities. Screening protocol incorporated with routine ante-natal checkup for early diagnosis of Candidiasis and its treatment is hereby recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Assessment of Foods and Currencies from Street Food Vendors and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Isolates

O. A. Ajayi, D. O. Oladele

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2019/45662

Aims: Street food vendors handle money and food simultaneously, creating possibilities of cross contamination. This study focused on determining the microbial loads of street vended foods and currency denominations received as change; identify and determine the antibiotics resistance profile of the isolates.

Materials and Methods: Four Street vended food samples and currency (10 - 500 Naira) notes from four vendors (FV) were collected. Microbial loads of food and money, biochemical analyses for identification of isolates and antibiotic resistance profile of the isolates were performed using standard methods.

Results: Total viable count (TVC) value ranged from (1.0×107 to 1.7×108 CFU/g); Staphylococcal (5.8×106 to 1.6×107 CFU/g), Salmonella-Shigella (NG to 1.2×107 CFU/g) and Coliform (no growth) from FV1. TVC ranged from (4.2×106 to 2.0×107 CFU/g); Staphylococcal (1.2×106 to 2.0×107 CFU/g), Salmonella-Shigella (1.6×106 to 1.1×107 CFU/g) and Coliform (NG to 1.5×105 CFU/g) from FV2. From FV3 TVC ranged from (9.3×106 to 4.6×107 CFU/g); Staphylococcal (1.9×106 to 5.1×106 CFU/g), Salmonella-Shigella (1.3×106 to 5.9×106 CFU/g) and Coliform (5.0×103 to 1.0×106 CFU/g). FV4 load ranged from (2.8×106 to 1.3×108 CFU/g); Staphylococcal (1.7×106 CFU/g to TNTC), Salmonella-Shigella (NG to 5.7×107 CFU/g) and Coliform (6.5×104 to 6.8×105 CFU/g). Eleven genera were identified from food and currencies including: Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter. Organisms showed varied resistance patterns to the different antibiotics screened. The percent resistance for Ampicillin and Ciprofloxacin were (87.5%), Ofloxacin (61.5%), Ceftazidime, Gentamicin and Amoxycillin/Clavulanate were (53.8%).

Conclusion: In conclusion, there are possibilities of cross contamination between food and currencies making the safety of consuming the foods a public health concern.

Open Access Original Research Article

Coxiella burnetii Detection in Stray Dogs in Klang Valley, Malaysia

Salamatu Mohammed Tukur, Konto Mohammed, Mahira Watanabe, Puteri Azaziah Megat Abdul Rani, Malaika Watanabe

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2019/46311

Aims: Coxiella burnetii is a tick-borne pathogen that may cause clinical disease in a number of animals including dogs. C. burnetii has garnered attention as a zoonotic agent. With the increasing contact between dogs and humans through ownership of pets and the growing stray dog population, it is alarming how there is still a paucity of information concerning this pathogen in stray dogs in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

Methods: In order to determine the rate of infection of Q fever, blood and ticks were collected from stray dogs from animal shelters and dog pounds and screened for htpAB-associated repetitive element of Coxiella burnetii using nested PCR. Chi-square test was used to establish the association or differences among/between proportions of the categories (age, breed and sex) at the significance level of α=0.05.

Results: C. burnetii was detected in 62 (33%) of the blood samples out of 188 total population and non of the tick samples collected tested positive. Comparison based on age showed young dogs to have a high prevalence of 35.7% (95%CI, 0.07-0.64) than adults (32.8%, 95%CI, 0.26-0.40). According to breed, the local breed had a higher infection rate (33.2%, 95%CI, 0.26-0.40) than pedigree dogs (25.0%, 95%CI, -0.55-1.05)   and based on sex, male dogs had a higher infection rate (34.3%, 95%CI, 0.21-0.42) than their female counterparts (31.3%, 95%CI, 0.25-0.44).  However, there was no significant difference P > 0.05 between all the three factors observed for Coxiella burnetii.

Conclusion: This study found Coxiella burnetii present in Klang Valley, therefore necessitate action against stray dogs population to avoid shedding or contamination of the organism in environments and transmission to naive animals and humans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Characterization and Cellulolytic Activities of Bacterial Isolates from the Hindgut of Wood-feeding Termites Amitermes evuncifer Silvestri

T. O. Femi-Ola, B. A. Oyebamiji

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2019/45732

Aims: To characterize the bacterial microbiota of the wood-eating termite Amitermes evuncifer Silvestri using the 16S rRNA molecular analysis and to determine the cellulolytic capability of the isolates.

Study Design: The study was designed to assess the different types of cultivable bacteria present in the gut of A. evuncifer. The cellulolytic potential of the bacterial isolates was also determined.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Ekiti State University Ado Ekiti, Nigeria, between January 2017 and February 2018.

Methodology: Gut microbiota of twenty wood-feeding worker termites Amitermes evuncifer were characterized using phenotypic methods and 16SrRNA molecular analysis. The bacterial isolates were also analyzed for cellulase production.

Results: The molecular analysis revealed that the isolates belonged to the Bacteria domain and phyla Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Achromobacter and Lysinibacillus. All the bacterial isolates exhibited both exoglucanase (FPase) and endoglucanase (CMCase) activities. Three of the isolates: Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579, Bacillus mycoides ATCC 6462 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 exhibited the highest endoglucanase activity of 6.38 μmol min−1mg−1, 5.96 μmol min−1mg−1 and 4.89 μmol min−1mg−1 respectively. Meanwhile Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 showed the highest exoglucanase activity (1.47 μmol min−1mg−1) followed by Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 (1.14 μmol min−1mg−1) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 50071 (1.10 μmol min−1mg−1).

Conclusion: Diversity of cellulolytic bacterial isolates was found in the hindgut of A. evuncifer. Further work needs to be carried out to determine the properties of the cellulase produced by bacterial community and the possible application of the isolates and their extracellular enzymes in biodegradation and treatment of agricultural wastes to alleviate pollution.