Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Resistance Profile and Molecular Characterization of Escherichia coli Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Isolated from Sylvanus Olympio Teaching Hospital in Lomé, Togo

Kodjovi D. Mlaga, Mounerou Salou, Sika Dossim, Segla D. Tigossou, Ahoefa E. Anago, Anoumou Y. Dagnra, Sanni Ambaliou

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2019/46439

The aim of this study is to describe the antibiotic profile and identify the molecular type of beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from clinical specimens at Sylvanus Olympio teaching hospital in Lomé. The study span from 1st March 2009 to 31st December 2010. We collected fifty-three isolates of Escherichia coli, identified by api20Eâ. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the disk diffusion method in an agar plate and PCR for molecular characterization. During the two years surveillance periods, 1156 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were collected from which, 300 (25.95%) were beta-lactamase producing bacteria. Amongst these 300 strains, 53 (17.67%) were E. coli ESBL-producer and they were all (100%) sensitive to imipenem; 33.96% for cefoxitin, 7.55% and 5.66% for ceftazidime and ceftriaxone, respectively, despite the production of beta-lactamase. The resistance to quinolones associated with resistance to beta-lactams exceeds 90% while moderate in aminoglycosides from 16.98% to 75%. Among 53 bacterial strains of E. coli producing beta-lactamase, 52/53 (98.11%) carried the blaTEM gene, 1/53 (1.89%) carry neither TEM gene nor SHV gene. Our findings suggest an emergence of multi-resistance E. coli ESBL-producer strains, probably clonal, in Togo.  A better knowledge of the epidemiology of resistance will improve the therapeutic management of patients while reducing the prescription of large spectrum antibiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Amino Acid and Volatile Flavor Profile of Dawadawa Produced from the Seeds of P. biglobosa, G. max and H. sabdariffa

A. Adamu Shahidah, A. A. Farouq, M. A. Magashi, A. M. Sokoto

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2019/46326

A comparative analysis of free amino acid and volatile organic compounds profile of dawadawa produced from the seeds Parkia biglobosa, Glycine max and Hibiscus sabdariffa was evaluated The free amino acid profile were analysed using amino acid analyser while the volatile organic compound profile were analysed using Gas –Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Difference was observed in the amino acid profile of the dawadawa with laboratory produced dawadawa recording an increased in the essential amino acid lysine, valine, methionine and leucine while tyrosine been the only non-essential amino acid that slight increased. Aspartic and glutamic acids seems to be the major amino acids in locally produced dawadawa with a value of 9.00 and 17.26 g/100 g protein. Fermentation increased the bioavailability of aspartic acid (9.00 to 9.31 g/100 g protein) while the glutamic acid decreased from 17.26 to 14.38 g/100 g protein after fermentation under laboratory conditions. The locally and laboratory produced dawadawa from G. max, the laboratory produced dawadawa showed increased in the six essential amino acid. The essential amino acid leucine and non-essential amino acids aspartic and glutamic acid are identified as the major amino acids in locally produced dawadawa from locust bean. The locally produced dawadawa from H. sabdariffa had the highest amino acid for lysine, valine glutamic acid and proline while threonine was the same in both local and laboratory produced. The locally and laboratory fermented seeds of P. biglobosa showed several volatile compounds in both dawadawa with locally produced dawadawa having 21 volatile organic compounds while dawadawa produced in the laboratory had 24 volatile organic compounds. The G. max produced dawadawa had 6 esters, 5 amides, 4 acids, 3 alcohols, 2 hydrocarbons and one heterocyclic compound. The volatile organic flavor compounds detected in dawadawa produced from H. sabdariffa seeds include 2 acids class flavor volatile, 1 alcohols, 2 aldehydes, 2 ketones, 2 amides, 4 carbonyl, 8 esters, 8 hydrocarbons and 1 phenol. The free amino acid and volatile profile varied between the laboratory and locally produced dawadawa from the three seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exposure Assessments of Internally Displaced Infants to Aflatoxin M1 through Breast Milk Feeding, in Damaturu Yobe State

S. Gide, F. A. Warodi, S. D. Alegbe, G. Anas

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2019/44660

Aflatoxin M1 is a biomarker for the detection of breast milk contamination and also a risk factor for early infant’s exposure to the toxin. Exposure assessment of 50 internally displaced infants to aflatoxin M1 through breast-milk feeding was carried out between (June 2016 to October 2016), High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the level of AFM1 in mother’s breast milk samples and the infant’s urine samples respectively.  Results obtained from the study showed that 96% of the breast milk samples have maximum concentration of 0.0879µg/L with mean value of 0.0582µg/L while, the minimum and maximum excretion concentration of AFM1 in urine sample of infants was 0.0400µg/L and 0.0651µg/L respectively with mean value of 0.05005µg/L at 88%.

The study indicates that the occurrence of AFM1 in breast milk samples of mothers with the types of food they consumed within 24- 48hrs prior to sample collection that predispose the infant’s exposure to AFM1 showed 40% of the women consumed rice and 32% consumed local food (brabisko/biski) and 24% consumed corn meal with statistically significant with P value less than 0.05. From the study the 96% of the infants were exposed to the toxin while 18% of the infants were undetectable, the concentration of AFM1 in all the breast milk samples were found to be higher than the acceptable tolerance level of 0.025µg/L and 0.05µg/L for infants milk by the European Communities and Codex Alimentarius respectively. This possess a concern that internally displaced infants that were on admission in the selected facility where exposed to AFM1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Carbapenems Resistant Bacteria: Case of Three Health Facilities in Lomé, Togo

S. Dossim, M. Salou, A. Azimti, B. Bidjada, A. M. Godonou, E. Aoussi, A. Kere-Banla, M. Prince-David, A. Y. Dagnra

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2019/46219

Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacteria resistant to carbapenems within three reference health facilities in Lomé, Togo.

Methods: It was a cross sectional study carried out between April and August 2016 within three medical bacteriology laboratories: Institut National d’Hygiène (INH), Sylvanus Olympio and Campus Teaching Hospitals. Samples of various origins were processed according to national standard procedures. Identification of bacteria was carried out according to the Biomérieux API® technique, antibiotics susceptibility test done according to the 2015 recommendations of the Comité de l’antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie (CA-SFM). Thus, enterobacteria with a decreased susceptibility to ertapenem and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to imipenem were included.

Results: During the study, 306 strains were isolated at Sylvanus Olympio Teaching Hospital, 77 at Campus Teaching Hospital, and 520 at INH. The prevalence was 7.19% (n=22) for Sylvanus Olympio, 2.59% (n=2) for Campus, and 0.77% (n=4) for INH. Among these 28 strains from different origins, 57.14% (n=16) were isolated from hospitalized patients. Most of the strains, 64.29% (n=18) were isolated from urines, 32.14% from pus (n=9), and 3.57% from CSF (n=1). It was 14 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, 11 strains of Enterobacter cloacae, 1 strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1 strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 1 strain of Escherichia coli. Two strains of E. cloacae and the strain of P. aeruginosa were resistant to colistin.

Conclusion: Cases of strains with decreased susceptibility to carbapenems are isolated within hospitals in Lomé, so a molecular characterization as well as an epidemiological surveillance is needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Electricity Production Potential of Decayed Tectona grandis Using Microbial Fuel Cell

D. V. Adegunloye, I. M. Ojo

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2019/44635

The potential of decayed Tectona grandis wood to generate current and voltage due to the inherent microorganism present in it was determined in this study. The decayed wood was collected from the Federal University of Technology Akure forest plantation. Microorganisms were isolated from the decayed Tectona grandis wood and the organisms were identified using both cultural and molecular methods. The microbial fuel experimental set up was carried out for 14 days. The microbial fuel cell was made up of two chambers which are the anodic i.e where bacteria oxidise the organic matter present in the wood and cathodic chamber, this contained the substrate (decayed wood) and water respectively. Current and voltage generated by the decayed wood was measured using a multimeter. Results revealed that the microorganisms isolated include Bacillus licheniformis, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus sp, Acinetobacter iwoffii Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus thuringiensis, Penicillum notantum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus penicilloides, Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus flavus. It also showed that there was a continuous increase in the current generated which was within the range from (0.032 ± 0.00 to 0.441 ± 0.02) mA. The highest voltage was generated on day 12 with the value (0.369 ± 0.02) mV. It was shown that there was a progressive increase in the voltage generated from day 1 to day 12 with the range of values from 0.023 ± 0.01 to 0.369 ± 0.02) mV. Findings from this study affirmed that decayed Tectona grandis wood has the ability to generate current and voltage using microbial fuel cell due to the microorganisms present in them which initiate oxidation reaction.